society is not a static system, it is constantly changing, is dynamic.Consequently, the dynamic change and structural elements of society, ie. E. The people.Man lifetime executes various social roles in the development of society as an alternate roles, statuses, and the people occupying them.This phenomenon is called "social mobility".This concept has been thoroughly studied and described by the author of the term Pitirim Sorokin.
life of the individual is inextricably linked to the social space in which he lives.The theory of social mobility describes the movement of the subject inside the space, which is a sort of universe.The position of the individual in the structure of society at the moment can be determined using some "points of reference".These terms of reference imply the relationship of man to social groups, the relationship of these groups with each other.In other words, the social position of the subject is determined by his marital status, nationality, national, religious, professional affiliation, and so on.. Thus, social mobility - is any movement on the specified individual's social position.This theory considers not only the movement of a person in social public system.Any object of the social structure, values can be moved in the social space.
Since mobility - a movement within the social space, there are various directions of movement or coordinates.In this regard, the following types of mobility: horizontal and vertical.Mobility in the horizontal plane represents a transition between the social positions within a single social level.Example: change of religion.Vertical mobility involves changing social status;the social level of the subject changes to a higher or lower.Improving the status - is the upward mobility (transition to a higher military rank);its deterioration - descending (expulsion from the university).Mobility in the vertical plane can be individual and group.In addition, mobility is:
- intragenerational or vnutrigeneratsionnaya, ie changes in social structure occurs within a certain age level;
- or intergeneratsionnaya intergenerational mobility - a social change in different age categories.
By what ways and by what means, structures of social system is social mobility?The channels of mobility are also known as "lifts".These include certain social institutions, namely the Church, the army, the family, educational institutions, professional and political organizations and, of course, the media.Thus, the theory of social mobility affects all sectors of society, all social structures.By adjusting the deterioration or improvement of the social status of the subject, the system thus promotes the desirable activities of groups and individuals.