Gaseous state of matter - the most common in comparison with other aggregate connection parameters.After all, in this state are:
- interstellar space;
- the cosmos as a whole.
main distinguishing properties of gases - is weak intermolecular interactions in the crystal lattice, because of which are shown and all the main characteristics of these substances.Gas, of course, very much.However, we consider the most important and the third most common on our planet - a natural.
Natural gas: the composition
If we characterize the qualitative composition of the natural gas, it is necessary to immediately identify the components of the two groups: organic and inorganic.Because although it is assumed that it is composed of methane, but it is not so.
Organic components include:
- methane - CH4;
- Propane - C3H8;
- butane - C4H10;
- ethane - C2H4;
- heavier hydrocarbons with carbon number greater than five.
inorganic components include the following compounds:
- hydrogen (in small quantities) - H2;
- carbon dioxide - CO2;
- helium - not;
- nitrogen - N2;
- hydrogen sulfide - H2S.
What exactly will be the composition of a particular mixture, depending on the source, that is mine.The same reasons and various physical and chemical properties of natural gas.However, any of them is extracted, and the value also has one.Just some kind is used as fuel, and a saturated fatty too adulterated used in the chemical industry for the synthesis of the compounds.
Physical and chemical properties of natural gas
To specify these parameters exactly, you should know exactly what the composition of the gas mixture.Indeed, if it prevails mainly methane (97%), the characteristics can be driven, it is guided to it.
If the inorganic component or the heavy hydrocarbons in excess (up to several percent), while the physico-chemical properties of the gas change abruptly.
Therefore, we can only indicate approximate boundary indicators on physical characteristics.
- Auto-ignition temperature - 650-7000S.
- octane number - 120-130.
- has no color, taste and smell.
- Easier air almost 2-fold, easy to concentrate in the upper room.
- density as a normal state (gas) - 0,68-0,85 kg / m3.
- Under standard conditions, always in gaseous state.
- When mixed with air in quantities of 5-15% is explosive.
- Calorific value - about 46 MJ / m3.
In addition, it should be noted and chemical parameters of natural gas side.
- is a highly flammable substance, is capable of spontaneously ignite when submitting spark and without at a certain temperature.
- Since the main component - methane, that has all of its chemical properties.
- reacts substitution dehydrogenation pyrolysis undergoes refraction.
- compressed and liquefied at low temperatures and high pressure.
obvious that such physico-chemical properties of natural gas is determined by a wide range of use in industry.
special properties of natural gas
special properties of the compound - it is the ability to form gas hydrate deposits, that is, in the solid state.These structures are absorbed by the molecules produced water volumes of natural gas at a ratio of 1/220.Therefore, these deposits are extremely rich in species.Places of their concentration in nature:
- pallets deep layers of the ocean;
- cluster permafrost.
conditions of existence - the hydrodynamic pressure and low temperature.
Natural gas deposits
If we talk about the content of the natural gas in nature, it is possible to identify the main areas of concentration:
- This mountain sedimentary rock minerals, which formed many thousands of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in the deep layers of the earth's crust.
- solution in groundwater.
- Included in the oil, forming oil and gas cap over it.
- occur in the form of gas hydrates in the seabed layers and points of Far North.
If we denote the spread of gas fields geographically, the leaders of the following countries:
- Gulf countries.
mining in the world each year is approximately 3.643 trillion m3.Of these, only Russia accounts 673 460 000 000 m3.
gas temperature at which it is burnt, is 650 0C.That is the rate at which it is able to self-ignite.This releases a greater quantity of heat than during the combustion of any other fuel.Naturally, it could not affect the scope of use of the substance.
That is why many countries that do not have natural gas reserves, have to import it from other countries.Transportation is carried out in several ways:
- by pipeline in gaseous form;
- in tanks on the sea route - in liquid form;
- in rail tank cars - LPG.
Each way has its advantages and disadvantages.In particular, marine and railroad embodiments safer since chemical activity in refrigerated liquefied gas cylinders is much lower than in the gaseous state.The pipeline as the transmission distance increases its volume and, in addition, this method is economically beneficial.
Methane is composed of natural gas
Methane gas is the main raw material component in the composition of the natural mixture.Its content ranges from 70-98%.By itself, it is the third most abundant gas in the world, which is part of the oil, interstellar space, the atmosphere of other planets.
Chemically, methane gas - saturated hydrocarbon relating to a series of saturated aliphatic compounds.The first representative of alkanes or paraffins.Reactivity it is small, it is quite calm.Able to react:
- complete oxidation;
Lights colorless smoke point, has no odor.
Types of natural gas
There are three main types of the substance in question.
- Dry gas - is one in which more than 97% methane.That is, the content of impurities, including other hydrocarbons, is extremely low.
- Skinny gas. It is a mixture containing a small amount of heavy hydrocarbons.
- Bold natural gas - one that is rich in heavy hydrocarbons and inorganic components (nitrogen, hydrogen, helium, argon, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide).
such thing as a ratio of dry gas, to evaluate the quality of the raw material from which will continue to be manufactured products.After all, natural gas itself - it is only a framework.For different industries need their product, so it is thoroughly processed and cleaned in accordance with the specific requirements.
quality of natural gas depends on the composition.If methane predominates, such a product is the best as a fuel source.If, however, the most in the composition of fatty hydrocarbons, the chemical industry is the raw material - the most suitable.
to supply natural gas of good quality, there are special chemical plants, on which it is thoroughly cleaned before further processing and shipment to the final destination.Methods of work will depend on the purpose for which the product is intended.
For example, if it will be used for domestic purposes, then it was added special substance odorants, in particular mercaptans.This is done in order to have the smell of gas has become, because then in case of leakage it will be easy to detect.All mercaptans have a sharp odor.
Consumption of natural gas is carried out in many industries and facilities.For example:
- gas engines.
- Chemical production (production of plastics and other materials).
- Fuel for cars.
- heating premises.
Therefore, world production of raw materials is so great, and imports and exports are estimated at billions of dollars.
terms of purity of nature is no better source of fuel than natural gas.Environmental organizations fully use it.However, in recent years, combustion gas leads to the accumulation of one of the reaction products - carbon dioxide.
And as it relates to greenhouse gases, the planet of his flock are very dangerous.Therefore conducted numerous works, projects for the protection of the ecological state of the planet from impending greenhouse effect.