ocean currents - is the flow of the water mass, which moves with a certain cyclical and frequency.Different persistence of physical and chemical properties and a particular geographical location.Sometimes cold or warm, depending on the membership of a hemisphere.Each stream is characterized by high density and pressure.Measure the flow of water masses in the Sverdrup, in a broader sense - in terms of volume.
primarily cyclical direction of flow characterized by such features as stability, speed, depth and width, chemical properties affecting strength, and so on. D. On the basis of the international classification, trends come in three categories:
1. Gradient.Occur under hydrostatic pressure isobaric water layers.Gradient ocean current - is a stream, which is characterized by horizontal movements isopotential surface area.According to initial indications, they are divided into, density, pressure, stock, compensation and seiche.As a result, the sewage flow generated rainfall and melting ice.
2. Wind.Determining the slope of the sea level, the power of the air flow and the mass density fluctuations.It is a subspecies of the drift ocean current.This flow of water caused purely by wind.Only the surface is exposed to fluctuations in the pool.
3. Tidal.Manifested most strongly in the shallow waters, estuaries and the coast.Separate type of flow is inertia.It is caused by the action of several forces.According to distinguish the variability of movement constant, periodic, monsoon and trade-wind flow.The last two are determined by the direction and speed seasonally.
reasons ocean currents
Currently, the circulation of water in the water area of the world is only beginning to be studied in detail.By and large, specific information known only to the surface and near-surface currents.The main snag is that Oceanographic system has no clear boundaries and is in constant motion.It is a complex network of streams due to various physical and chemical factors.
Nevertheless, today known ocean currents following reasons:
1. Cosmic impact.This is the most interesting and difficult at the same time to study the process.In this case, during the rotation of the Earth is caused by the impact on the atmosphere and the planet's hydrological system of cosmic bodies, and so on. D. A striking example - the tides.
2. The impact of the wind.Water circulation is dependent on the strength and direction of air masses.In rare cases, you can talk about the deep currents.
3. The difference in density.Streams are formed due to the uneven distribution of temperature and salinity of water masses.
in the waters of the world this kind of pressure is caused by the effect of non-uniform mass.Coupled with the cosmic anomalies streams of water in the oceans and smaller pools not only change its direction, but also power.This is especially noticeable in the seas and straits.A striking example is the Gulf Stream.At the beginning of his career, he is characterized by increased skorostyu.Vo Florida Straits and Gulf Stream accelerates both nasty and tailwind.This phenomenon forms the cyclical pressure on the layers of the pool, driving the flow.Hence, in a certain period of time there is a significant outflow and inflow of large amounts of water.The weaker the pressure of the atmosphere, the higher the tide.
When the water level goes down, the slope of the Straits of Florida is getting smaller.Because of this substantially reduced flow rate.Thus, it can be concluded that increased pressure reduces the power flow.
impact of wind
connection between flows of air and water is so strong and at the same time simple that it's hard not to be seen even with the naked eye.Since ancient times sailors knew how to count a suitable ocean currents.This was made possible thanks to the work of the scientist B. Franklin of the Gulf Stream, dating from the 18th century.After several decades of Alexander von Humboldt have the wind is in the list of the main water masses affect foreign sil.S mathematical standpoint theory substantiated Tsepprits physicist in 1878.He proved that in the oceans is a constant transfer of surface water to deeper levels.Thus a major impact on the movement of force becomes a breeze.The flow rate in this case depth decreases proportionally.Determine the conditions of constant circulation of water is an infinitely long time to wind.The exceptions are considered to be a trade-wind currents of air, which cause the movement of water masses in the equatorial belt of the oceans seasonally.
effect of this factor on the water circulation is the major cause of the flow in the oceans.Large-scale studies of the theory are the international expedition of Challenger.Subsequently, the work of scientists had confirmed the Scandinavian physicists.
inhomogeneous density of water masses is the result of several factors.They have always existed in nature, representing a continuous hydrological system of the planet.Any deviation of water temperature entails a change in its density.This has always been inversely proportional.The higher the temperature, the lower the density.
also the difference of physical parameters affect physical state of water.Freezing or evaporation increases density precipitation - reduces it.It affects the effect of flow and salinity of water masses.It depends on the melting ice, precipitation and evaporation levels.In terms of the density of the oceans quite uneven.This also applies to the surface and deep layers of water area.
general scheme of atmospheric circulation flow is determined.So, the eastern trade wind contributes to the formation of the North course.It crosses the waters of the Philippine Islands to the coast of Central America.It has two branches that feed the pool and Indonesian equatorial ocean current of the Pacific Ocean.In the Northern Hemisphere, the largest flow of the waters of the Kuroshio are, Alaska and California Current.The first two - warm.The third stream is a cold ocean current of the Pacific Ocean.Pool Southern Hemisphere form the Australian and Equatorial Current.Just east of the center of the waters observed Equatorial Countercurrent.Off the coast of South America, there is a branch of cold Peruvian stream.
During the summer near the equator acts ocean current El Niño.It pushes the cold water mass flow Peru, forming a favorable climate.
Indian Ocean and its current
The northern part of the basin is characterized by seasonal change of warm and cold currents.This is caused by the action of the constant dynamics of the monsoon tsirkulyatsii.V winter dominated by Southwest during which originates in the Bay of Bengal.A little further south is the West.This ocean current crosses the waters of the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa to the Nicobar Islands.
summer monsoon contributes to a significant change in the surface waters.Equatorial Countercurrent shifted significantly to the depth and loses its power.As a result, his place is taken by the powerful Somali and warm Madagascar Current.
circulation of the Arctic Ocean
main reason for the development of underwater currents in this part of the world's oceans is a strong inflow of water masses from the waters of the Atlantic.The fact that the centuries-old ice cover makes the atmosphere and cosmic bodies impact on the internal tsirkulyatsiyu.Vazhneyshim over the waters of the Arctic Ocean is considered the North Atlantic.It fetches huge volumes of warm masses, preventing the water temperature drop to the critical exponents.
the direction of ice drift is responsible for trans-Arctic.Among the other largest flows can be distinguished Yamal, Spitsbergen, Norwegian Nortkapskoe and flow, as well as a branch of the Gulf Stream.
currents of the Atlantic basin
salinity of the waters of the ocean is extremely high.The zoning of the water circulation is the weakest among other pools.Here, the main ocean current - the Gulf Stream.Thanks to him, the average water temperature readings are kept at around 17 degrees.This is a warm ocean current of the Atlantic Ocean warms both hemispheres.
also the most important streams are the Canary Basin, Brazilian, Benguela and Equatorial Current.