historical Russian Ruble considered monetary unit.The origins of the ruble officially begins with the Novgorod birchbark documents the beginning of the XIII century, but most historians agree that the ruble is a monetary concept existed before, maybe even the tenth century.
History of the ruble is directly linked with the history of Novgorod.The first written mention of the ruble is dated 1281-1299 years.While a lot of fragmented Russian principalities enjoyed Kiev hryvnia as a monetary unit.We can assume that the story is a continuation of the ruble or "branch" of the history of the hryvnia.
At the beginning of the XIII century in Novgorod in the course were 200-gram silver bullion in the form of sticks that its oblong shape and weight reminiscent of the hryvnia - the monetary unit of Kievan Rus.However, unlike Kiev, Novgorod, these ingots were called "ruble".
history Russian ruble links the name of the monetary unit with a simple Russian lyudom.As the name is distinguished by its membership in the common parlance it is likely that the ruble became known as ingots, long before the first mention in the charters, that is why it is very difficult to determine the exact time of origin of the ruble.
There is no consensus on the value of the first rubles.The fragmented principalities used silver bullion - UAH rubles or, for smaller calculations used foreign coins and denarius dirhams called in Russian "coon".
Sometimes 200-gram ingots had to cut down on poltinas or smaller pieces for the accuracy of calculations.This fact complicates the determination of the exact value of the ruble, as according to one ruble is an analogue of hryvnia, and the other - its "stump" of 100 grams.
It is likely that the principality is not completely crushed converged in the names of monetary units, and the ruble in Novgorod was really equal to the hryvnia, and the ruble in Moscow was less than half.It is proved that appeared later were Lithuanian ruble, weighing 100 g
history of the ruble does not have data on the exact origin of the term.Today, there are four main options for the origin of the word "ruble".The basic version - the ruble is a derivative of the word "rub", which means "joint".Novgorod Ruble minted technology, according to which the form was filled in the first half of silver, and then the second part, wherein the ingot formed in the middle of the seam.Hence the vulgar name ingot - ruble.
According to the second version of the root of the word comes from the verb "to cut."In this case, scientists are considering two options.The first - the ruble was part of the hryvnia, or more precisely, its fourth;ie poltina, chipped in half.The second option - the Novgorod ruble was different from Kiev hryvnia notches, clarifies dignity and worth of silver bullion.
other two versions require borrowing terms from other languages.Perhaps the word "ruble" has common roots with the word "rupee", which means "silver elapsed processing."Besides probable connection with the Arabic word "quarter", which sounds like "RR".
history ruble stops on the first two versions, as historians share the belief of belonging of the word "ruble" in common parlance, that does not agree with the possibility of borrowing the term.
use solid silver bullion was extremely uncomfortable, but lasted until the XIV century when during the reign of Dmitry Donskoy became the new minted small coins.Each coin weighed a little less than one gram and was called "money", as the legacy of the Mongol-Tatar yoke.From that moment begins the story of the coin "ruble".
Coins different form, since it was difficult to mint a perfect circle, but the weight and press the center of the coin are the same.Design printing can vary depending on the principality in which coins were struck.
By moving to smaller money calculations become much easier, and eventually 200-gram ingots came from the common people and goods began to be used only in the wholesale trade.
Under the influence of the political forces of Novgorod and the Moscow principality, as well as from western Duchy of Lithuania to the XV century ruble fully supplanted the hryvnia and became not only the name of ingot, but also narrow-minded concept adopted for the calculation and counting of money in the economy.
changes and reforms
first widespread ruble monetary reform was carried out in the middle of the XVI century.In 1534, in Moscow, began a unified monetary reform, whose aim was the unification of the coin used for the calculations, as well as getting rid of the internal market of foreign currency, confuses the trade.
basic unit of currency became the ruble in Moscow, which consisted of 200 or 100 Moscow Novgorod money laundering.Subsequently Novgorod coins were called "penny", and Moscow - "mechenkami."These names are associated with printing on the reverse side of the coin.A penny was struck warrior with a spear on horseback, and on mechenke - a warrior with a sword.The smallest coin was considered a mite that is half mechenki;often it was just a coin, chipped or broken in half.
Since silver bullion in denominations of ruble during the XVI century completely out of items, the ruble, until the middle of the XVI century remained no more than a measuring unit.
In 1654, was first minted coin of one ruble.In fact, it was perechekanennye German coins, which on one side has been printed coat of arms (double-headed eagle), and on the other side of the king depicted on horseback.Coin called "ruble", but weighed less than his dignity - 64 grams.
During the reign of Peter I began to mint money independently, and was made a number of changes have been introduced and the copper penny weighing 28 g and dignity in 1/100 of a share of the ruble.In addition to copper cents were introduced and gold pieces in denominations of 3 rubles and weighing a little more than 3 grams of gold.Later, at the end of the XVIII century, the weight of silver coins in denominations of 1 ruble fell to 18 grams.
first paper rubles appeared during the reign of Catherine II, in 1769.These banknotes have been in circulation for 50 years;at the time of printing is not controlled by the state, which led to the actual collapse of the economy, because the paper rubles was more than providing their precious metals.In 1843, banknotes were completely withdrawn from use.
first failing bank notes were replaced in the same year the bank notes, however, for similar reasons, banks will soon have ceased to exchange them for gold and silver - paper money was more than the methane separated in the software.
reform of 1897 has issued a new paper ruble backed by gold.Print rubles was carried out by the new technology involves the use of several colors and different levels of protection.Orel multicolour printing (the name in honor of Ivan Orlov) allowed to avoid counterfeits and increase state control over the issue of the number of banknotes.
beginning of the twentieth century and the royal monetary system
period collapse of the Russian Empire and the establishment of Soviet Russia, called the "time of troubles."Not surprisingly, the history of the Russian ruble in this period is considered the most complicated and the number of formal and informal changes in the currency difficult to count.
Even during the war, the Japanese Empire began to lack of funds;popular discontent, attempted coup, as well as Russia's entry into World War I actually led the Empire to the extreme shortage of money.Because items are gone all the coins, even the smallest.
In practice, all that is called for the reporting of the ruble and was used in the trade, does not have even the smallest value, because it was not backed by reserves of precious metals.Rubles were called self-printed banknotes, wine labels and even draw money.In the history of the ruble, as well as in the country's history, this period can be considered the most unstable.
first Soviet rubles
history of Russian ruble in the early Soviet period begins in 1923, when it was minted the first gold ducat, equated to 10 imperial rubles.In exchange ducats were issued coins of silver - silversmiths.This is one of the rarest of the Soviet coins as gold coins and silversmiths used mainly for overseas transactions in the country are virtually no choice.
With 30s.The twentieth century began to appear paper rubles, and small coins of cheap metal alloys.The efforts of the government to bring the money to a single format continued until mid-century, with the appearance of rubles and kopecks me very often.
The biggest currency reform in the history of the Soviet Union, and perhaps Russia as a whole are prepared in 10 years.They were chosen materials and the new value of the ruble made uniform format and selected a single design.Over the next few years, the Union has passed a complete replacement of all funds to the new.
one ruble of the new model was equivalent to 10 old rubles (the first Soviet-style) and had gold equivalent to 1 gram of gold.Everyday coins of precious metals no longer minted, except for the issue of coins to mark important events and anniversaries.
Modern Russian ruble
history ruble underwent another crisis in the early 90s.After the collapse of the Soviet Union the old Soviet rubles were in use until 1993, when inflation and the economic crisis is completely crippled the national currency and prevented a smooth transition to the new format of money.
To avoid an increase in inflation in 1993 was a monetary reform and adopted a new bill to the treatment with a lot of zeros.In 1998 the Government of the Russian Federation held a series of monetary reforms, which were followed by the denomination and the issuance of new notes that are in circulation today.