Indonesia - the largest state in South-West Asia - is often called the country of a thousand islands.She was stretched on the part of New Guinea, and Molukskih Sunda islands, the largest of which - Borneo, Sulawesi, Java, Sumatra, the island of Timor, Flores, Sumbawa, Bali and others.The three islands of Indonesia among the six largest in the world.
Tropical paradise islands of Indonesia are a colorful carpet of the mixing of peoples, cultures, diverse landscapes, climatic zones.One of the most amazing is Sumatra, which many called a continent in miniature.There is a tropical and savanna, fens and high mountains.The island is home to rhinos and elephants, tigers and leopards, bears and buffaloes - a large fauna, not peculiar to the islands.
Sumatra Island - one of the largest islands in the Malay Archipelago.It stretches from the northwest to the southeast for 1,800 km.The area of the island - 421 000 km2.He formed a system of mountain ranges, put forward by far to the west.The highest points are at a distance of 30-50 km from the Indian Ocean.They have no names.The southern areas are known as the Barisan mountain range in the northern part of the island stands the Batak highlands.
around the "mother" of the island housed the smaller areas of land.From the Indian Ocean, lined up parallel to the sparsely populated mountainous area of Sumatra: Mentawai, Nias, Ang.Along the eastern shore stretched Sinkep, Bank Belitung.It became notorious Simalur (Simeulue) - Indonesian island west of the island of Sumatra.In 2004, it hit the coast giant tsunami.
Nearby, to the northeast, is the Malay Peninsula - a part of the Asian continent.From Sumatra, it separates the Strait of Malacca.Here are the most important shipping routes: the rich cargoes attracted real pirates of the XXI century, plundering ships.To the east, 420 km, is a "big brother" - the island of Borneo (Kalimantan).Between the "family" passes the Strait of Carimate.The most densely populated Indonesian island of Java, Sumatra, separated from the Sunda Strait width of 25 km.
the question "where is the Sumatra" can be answered simply: between Australia and Asia.And if more precisely - in the extreme west of the Malay Archipelago, in the triangle between Java, Kalimantan and Malay peninsula.
Mountains of Sumatra formed partly in Hercynian, partly in later Mesozoic and Paleogene folding, they have as young longitudinal discharge.They are composed of quartzites, schists, limestones of Paleozoic age, have outputs granitic intrusions.The average height of the mountains - from 1500 to 3000 m.
Ridge Barisan divided longitudinal zone faults and grabens on two parallel chains.The island is crowned with numerous cones of active and extinct volcanoes, among which stand out clearly the highest volcano in Sumatra - Kerinci (Indrapura), a height of 3800 m. It is followed by Dempo (3159 m) and Marapi (2891 m).Total operating twelve giants.
between Sumatra and neighboring Java, in the Sunda Strait, hiding stratovolcano Krakatoa (813 m).Its eruptions are rare, but are catastrophic destruction.Last Activity was observed here in 1999.In 1927-1929 gg.as a result of an underwater explosion was formed, Anak Krakatau island.But the eruption of 1883 virtually destroyed the once high island - the blast was felt on every continent, three times going around the Earth.
In contrast, the south-western mountain range in the east of Sumatra lies a large marshy alluvial lowlands.A feature of the area is that part of it flooded coastal tides.Here fertile ground for extensive mangrove forests.Sumatra Belitung Island Bank and rich in various kinds of minerals: oil, coal, gold, manganese, iron, nickel, tin.
Malay Archipelago on the map is located in the equatorial zone between Asia and Australia.The climate is humid.Rainfall in Sumatra places exceeds 3500-3800 mm (comes up to 6000 mm), but they fall unevenly.A large number of rains caused mountain barrier stretching along the entire island.Lots of moisture drops in October and November to the north of the equator, and in December and January - to the south of it.In the north the season with less rainfall is expressed more clearly than in the south.Comfortable temperature - 25-27 degrees nearly all year long, but spoil the idyllic picture of an incredibly high humidity.
In the east of the island in the Straits of Malacca are often strong winds blow east.They reach the maximum force during the term of the southwest monsoon.Basically, this hurricane, accompanied by thunderstorms, observed at night - obviously, this contributes to the mountain range of Sumatra, which extends parallel to the Strait of Malacca.
Islands of Indonesia, thanks to abundant rainfall, have excess moisture.With this in most regions of the many rivers flowing.No exception and Sumatra: the river network is dense enough, streams do not dry up within a year, washing out from the mountains a lot of sediment.The largest rivers of the island are Muse, Hari, Kampar, rock Inderagiri.
many lakes on the island.In the center of Batak tuff plateaus in the volcanic basin is the largest lake in Indonesia - Toba Samosir the island in the middle.At the time, there existed a separate principality Batak, whose descendants, according to legend, settled throughout Sumatra.The lake is located at an altitude of 904 meters above sea level.The area - more than 1000 km2 and a maximum depth - 433 meters.It is cool, especially at night.On the Asahan river flowing out of the reservoir, built a hydroelectric power plant with capacity 320,000 kW.
most common types of soils are podzolized laterites that are formed on the weathering crust.In the foothills and mountains of the soil presents options laterite mining.In the east, a wide band stretching alluvial and bog soils, and in the narrow coastal strip - mangrove.
Geographical location of Sumatra at the equator contributes to the dense tropical forests, they occupy large spaces.Unfortunately, in the river valleys, the plains and in the mountain hollows of large areas of forests are cut down, and developed areas grow various crops.The island is widely cultivated rubber trees, rice, coconut palm, tobacco, tea, cotton, pepper.
most typical forest species are:
- rasamaly and fig trees;
- several species of trees: sugar, Palmyra, walnut, Iscariot, rattan;in lower reaches of rivers and swamps - nipa;coconut - in the coastal zone;
- original tree ferns, bamboos huge (up to 30-40 m in height), amorphous-Falus endemic and parasitic Rafflesia.
the north-eastern coast is dominated by low-lying mangroves.On the lower parts of the intermountain small areas occupied by savannas.At altitudes of 1.5-3 km common forests with a predominance of evergreen trees (laurel, oak), there are conifers, deciduous broad-leaved (chestnut, maple) trees.Above 3000 m forests give way to scrubby deciduous bushes, shrubs and grasses.
Island fauna is represented mainly by forest species.Sumatran jungle have become a Mecca for eco-tourists wanting to meet with the life of one of the most interesting species of apes - orangutans.
also typical mammals are the primates (slow loris, siamang, svinohvosty macaques, rhesus house) COLUGO, lizards, squirrels, badgers, bats.Among the major inhabitants are allocated two-horned rhino, elephant Indian, Sumatran tiger, Malayan tapir, leopard, striped pig, Weaver's island, Malay bear, wild dog.
Among the birds most interesting gomray, Argus, boatbill, several species of pigeons.Of the reptiles on the island are found flying dragons gavials (crocodiles), snakes.Amphibians stands legless caecilians.A lot of different insects, arachnids.
Sumatra Island on the map is not much different from the neighboring lands, but it was here 73,000 years ago there was a landmark cataclysm that changed the history of the Earth.Supervolcano explosion spawned the emergence of so-called volcanic winter resembling nuclear.In addition to the 3000 km3 of ash into the atmosphere has got a huge amount of anhydride, provoked widespread acid rain.
six years on the planet reigned abnormally low temperature, acid rains which destroyed the vegetation.Subsequent millennium is characterized by the onset of cooling and glaciers.As a result of the large population of people survived only the smartest - about 10 000 representatives of the species Homo sapiens in the heart of Africa.In fact, natural disasters contributed to the "explosive" development of intelligence in our ancestors.
Lake Toba Sumatra - island with amazing nature.The most striking geological and cultural attraction is the world's largest volcanic lake Toba, filled with giant crater that very supervolcano.Its dimensions (length - 100 km, width - 30 km, depth - 505 m) allowed the reservoir to become the largest in Indonesia and the second (after the Tonle Sap Lake) in Southeast Asia.
Lake Toba Samosir island is beautiful.It is famous for incredible scenery, nature and authentic culture.There are not only Muslims, but also the people who called Batak.They - Christians have a very distinctive folk traditions, art, and especially architecture.Samosir very small, the length of its coastline - 111 km.But this small area organically fit and developed tourist centers, and "untouched" natural landscape and everyday life Sumatran peasants.
Although fresh water in Toba, its transparency, blue, the surrounding landscape and the microclimate reminiscent of the Mediterranean coast.It violates this association only the absence of large waves, which for many travelers is a great advantage.
In Indonesia, home to more than 300 people, while linguists account for 719 living languages and dialects.About 90% of the population, including in Sumatra - Muslims.Most Islanders know Indonesian, who is only 50 years old.It brings together different peoples and nationalities in the country, it is taught in schools, it is dominant on television and in the press.
in the western region (Bank of Sumatra, Mentawai Islands, an archipelago Ling and others) is home to over 50 million people, who speak 52 languages.In the north and east of Sumatra and on numerous islands is dominated by the Malays in the south - the Javanese.Chinese and Tamils are concentrated in urban centers.
In cities lives less than a third of the population.Major metropolitan areas:
- Medan - 2.1 million people (2010).
- Palembang - 1.5 million (2010).
- Batam (Riau Islands) - 1.15 million (2012).
- Pekanbaru - 1.1 (2014).
In the central highlands around Lake Toba and live wonderful people - Batak.First of all, surprised their fantastic architecture: three-storey houses reminiscent of Noah's ark.Indigenous inhabitants explained that the first floor is for animals previously in the woods was a lot of wild animals, so the house was built "on his feet" (on stilts) for safety.On the second floor of the family live, and in the attic - spirits.Although Batak - Christians in the spirits they believe is very, because attics size may even exceed the first two floors together.At home Batak (on the island there are about 6 million) speak in their own language, but the majority speaks Indonesian national.Many people understand English.