One of the most difficult subjects for this study considered a foreign interrogative sentences in the English language.If the question is expressed in Russian intonation and requires no memorization of special rules, the language of Shakespeare from the knowledge of the rules depends on whether or not you understand.That is why interrogative sentences in English are considered difficult, but essential material for the study.
Common questions and their structure
in English grammar, there are many categories of interrogative sentences.But first, let's look at common issues for all English circuit.Any interrogative sentence begins with the so-called keyword.In this role can act form of the verb "to be";"To have";"To do";modal verbs;"Shall", "will" and combinations of words, images tenses proposals depending on the situation.Examples:
1) Are we at home already?- Yes, we are;No, we are not.
We have at home?- Yes / No
2) Were you there?- Yes, I was;No, I was not.
You were there?- Yes / No
3) Is your dad an engineer?He is;He is not
Your dad was an engineer?- Yes / No
4) Has she got the doll she liked?Yes, she has;No, she has not.
Now she has a doll that she loves?- Yes / No
5) Have you got any ideas about it?
there any ideas about this?
6) Had she ever got a car?Yes, she had;No, she had not.
She has ever had a car?- Yes / No
7) Do you realy speak English so well?I do;No, I do not.
You really speak in English so well?- Yes / No
8) Does Nina like sushi?Oh!Yes, she does;No, she does not.
Nina loves sushi?- And how! / No
9) Did they do the job instead of us?Yes, they did.No, they did not.
Are they working for us?Yes, work / No, they did not work for us.
10) Can you help me?Sure, I can;No, I can not.
Can you help me?- Sure / No, I can not
11) Should I go business?I think, you should;No, you should not.
Whenever I go into business?- I think, yes / no, this is not for you
12) Need you this?Oh!I realy need it.No, I need not.
So whether you need it?- Yes, you have / No, do not
13) Have we been being served in the restraunt well?Yes, we have.No, we have not.
We are now well served in the restaurant?- Yes / No
14) Will the message have been received in time?Yes, it will.No, it will not
message will be received on time?- Yes, time / No.
15) Is this made of steel?Yes, it is.No, it is not.
It is made of steel?- Yes, of steel / no
This - the simplest of interrogative sentences in the English language.Consider other options.
Contact the auxiliary verb and the structure of the answer to the question
In all the answers necessary to observe that the key in which the question is asked.This unique and English.Types of interrogative sentences have some similarities in the structure.In other words, the question is always a part of the answer - namely, the auxiliary verb.When asked "Do you smoke?"can not be answered "No, I'm not."
So, these were "generals questions" - questions that must be answered "yes" or "no."The difference between them is only a keyword, i.e.the auxiliary verb.
principle of the special role of the keyword is applicable to almost all categories of question types of sentences.And although the general issues it in the first place, the order of words in other proposals may change, but remains the same strict.Thus, interrogative sentences in the English language have a distinct structure that change is by no means impossible.
Alternative questions - the question forces to make a choice.Between words, which express the range, always present particle "or".Examples:
- Do you prefer driving or riding here?You are here prefer driving or horseback riding?
- So, where did exactly the main character live Rome or Milan?So where he is still living exactly the protagonist in Rome or Milan?
- What is your best swimming or running?What do you do best, swimming or jogging?
examples clearly show that the answer to these questions should be brief.The last two examples lead us to consider another category of interrogative sentences.
Specific questions or special interrogative sentences in the English language
particular categories of questions in English is "Wh-questions" or "special questions".They are not difficult for English language learners.Construction of interrogative sentence depends on the initial promise of the speaker.Special themes and issues are unique, that they need to respond not only to understand the statements, but also the right to express his thoughts, without getting into a semantic trap.Distinguished by this category of questions that are not always subject to the general scheme of English interrogative sentences.Strictly speaking, this category is divided into two types - "object question" and "subject question".They have in common only that "Wh-questions" always start with one of the following interrogative adverbs: what, where, when, why, which, who, whom, whose, how.
Species specific issues
interrogative adverb acts as a pointer to be the answer.Here "Wh-question" is subject to the general scheme of English interrogative (keyword at the beginning of sentences) with the only amendment that before the keyword is placed one of the interrogative adverbs.
- Who do you choose to your team?Him.- Whom do you choose a team?Him.
- What has this man done?Nothing.- What this man did this, then?Nothing special.
- Where are you going?Just shopping.- Where to go?Oh, just run through the shops.
interrogative adverb acts as a pointer addition to the response.E. In this case, the cause of the issue - complement, not subject.There is an affirmative word order (not obeying the British general interrogative scheme), but with the amendment that appears to be in the role of interrogative adverb.This category is possible only with the words "what" and "who", which translated into Russian will always be in the nominative case.
- Who jumps higher than others?Who jumps higher than the others?- Michael jumps higher than others.Jumps us above the rest Misha.
"Jumps us above the rest" - is the cause of the issue (supplement) instead of Misha (what it is that he can, that he knows).
- What makes me well?What makes me feel better?- Oh!It's inspiration.Inspiration.
The real question is, "makes me feel better," not what it (my inspiration).
For comparison: object question - What does it make yourself well?What is this - get to feel better?
Specific questions can be combined with alternative, for example:
- Who do you like, Mary or Lucy?- You who are more like Mary or Luda?
- What goes next, task or rest?- So what's next, the job or leisure?
The different question designs in Russian and English?
Now consider the most radical difference in the answers in Russian and English languages.Questions denial (negative questions) is often used for more emotional coloring matter, for example:
- Do not you want to go today with us?- Do not you go with us there today?
answer "yes, (do not want)" will sound like "No, I do not."A "No, (I want)" - "Yes, I do."
Interrogative sentences in the English language with a negative word in the answer always mean a negative answer, and vice versa.In the Russian language at the matter the word "yes" can mean "do not want" and the word "no" - "want to."Wrong to say in English "Yes, I do not".In English, you can not combine the "yes" with negative particles.Negative questions are particularly relevant in business communication.
- Would not you like a cup of coffee?As you settle for a cup of coffee? / Would you like a cup of coffee?
Another type of questions - dividing issues - also are likely to emotional stress than to send the most sense.They are translated into Russian only by the structure "is not it?" Isolating issues rarely used, especially in spoken English.The flow of speech most often British and Americans also use intonation.But the letter is very important to observe all the rules of grammar.Interrogative sentences in the English language perform their communicative tasks only if properly constructed.For example:
- Is he just a driver, is not he?- He's just the driver, is not it?
- The monk likes to be on his own.Does not he?- This monk likes to be alone with him, right?
Thus, interrogative sentences in the English language - it is a separate section of the grammar, which requires painstaking and thoughtful study.