In today's world there are two kinds of state.Device: simple (a unitary state) and complex (confederation, federation).Definition of the term (second) include the word "federation" is derived from the Latin foederātiō, which means "unions".The word "unitary" as translated from French as "a single, united."It turns out that these two concepts are almost identical.So what is the difference between federal and unitary state structure types?The first term is different from the second?
What is a unitary state and that such a federation?Determination
unitary state is the integrity of States, which, if and consists of several components, which are the administrative-territorial units, but nevertheless is an indivisible entity.In contrast, the definition of the word "federation" in modern science is given as follows: This form of government is inherent in those countries, which consist of the territorial entities that have legally certain political independence.These components in each country have different names, but in jurisprudence regardless of their names to denote the subjects of the federation.As you know, the United States is made up of states, the Russian Federation - from the republics, territories, autonomous regions, Germany - from the federal states, Canada - from the provinces, etc.However, all these components are legally considered to be the subjects of the federation.The largest state in the world with a federal type of government - this is Russia, the US, Germany, India, Brazil and others.Summing up, let's try to summarize what the subject of the federation.The definition of this term is found in any dictionary, including electronically.The essence of this concept is the following: the subject of the federation is a state entity that is part of the federal state, and which does not have sovereignty.
system of higher authorities
in federal states are two of the top management bodies and authorities: the subjective and federal.Despite the fact that the constitution of this state is the same for all the subjects of the federation, each of the federal units have the right to their own regional laws and regulations, has its own capital, flag and other symbols of citizenship, etc., But there is no national sovereignty.Subjective authorities do not have the right to establish political relations with other countries, this is done at the federal level.
Now you know what the Federation, the definition has been given above, however, consider, on what grounds can be established that the State has a corresponding shape state.device.
1. If a State consists of separate subjects (republics, states, polynomials, etc.), With its own territory and has sovereignty, it is a federation.
2. At this polity the supreme executive, judicial and legislative power in the hands of the federal government agencies.
3. Subjects of the Federation is entitled to make its own laws, have its own constitution, does not contradict the Federal Constitution, as well as having the highest organs of the triple power.
4. In federal states obligatory bicameral parliamentary structure.One of the chambers is a general federal authority representative, and the second - the specific subject of the federation.
History of federations
Federation in the modern sense emerged in the last century.There are older countries with a similar constitution.They originated in the days when scientists have not yet thought about the question of what a federation.The definition of this term was given much later.In different countries, this process was different.For example, by combining African sovereign states of Tanganyika and Zanzibar in the sixties of the last century there was the Federal Republic of Tanzania.The United States is formed as a result of association of several dozen political units with the actual signs of statehood.In addition to the United States in the same way it was formed, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, etc.But there are cases when the federation was formed as a result of attacks from the government.These countries include India, Pakistan and others.
very first modern federation were formed on the basis of an alliance between states.In Soviet times there was once some of these federations.In this case the subjects of the federation retain their sovereignty and the right of withdrawal (secession) of the union had its own constitution, citizenship, and their boundaries could not be changed without their consent.
Federation second type
refer to this type of constitutional federations, which were based on autonomy.What is a federation, which falls under the definition of the second group?Their difference from the first is that in this case the subjects of the federation have no sovereignty, their boundaries can be changed without consent from them.However, their view is not ignored, but can not be considered fundamental.After a rapid collapse of the socialist camp, almost all federal states the first group broke up into unitary: Czech Republic separated from Slovakia, separated from each other Yugoslav republics of Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Kosovo, etc., And the Soviet republics separated from each other.
Nevertheless, in some of the countries of the former Soviet Union still remained a federal polity.To date, almost all federations in the world are self-contained, that is constitutional.
federal structure of the Russian Federation
consider this kind of state.devices for example Russia - the largest country in area in the world.Russia - a country with a democratic federal structure, which consists of 85 equal subjects: 46 regions, 21 republics, 1 autonomous region, 9 edges, three cities (Moscow, St. Peterbuge and Sevastopol), the federal importance, and four autonomous regions,and leased until 2050, the city and the cosmodrome Baikonur.In addition, the territory of the Russian Federation conditionally divided into 8 districts which, although they are not the subjects of the federation, but they include several administrative regions (subjects) of the Russian Federation.
legal definition: the subject of the Russian Federation
Public legal education in Russia is called the Federation.The Constitution provides 6 types of entities (republic, territory, region, etc.).Each of them has a certain status with its inherent constitutional and legal features.
1.Respublika, according to the constitution, is the state.It may have its own national language, and the constitution.
2. Field of federal and edge.It has its own charter, which set the legislative authority of the entity.
3. Stand area.It can also have its own statutes, established by the legislative body of the field.
4. Autonomous Okrug.His status is determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation.It is included in a particular region or area.It has its own charter.