matrix organizational structure is the most difficult to implement.Initially it was used only in the space industry, in the electronics industry, as well as in the field of high technologies.This organizational structure has become necessary and at other enterprises, as changes occur in industry and other spheres of activity.
matrix organizational structure has two main divisions:
- food-oriented - are responsible for the production of certain products.These divisions control the main issues relating to the manufacture of tactical products.They are subordinate to the director or his deputy in charge of production.
- The sales - sales of products focused on customer segments or in certain regions.These divisions are controlled by the director or his deputy marketing.
Both units interact with the production department.For example, the sales divisions provide the range of products to be manufactured.In turn, the production units are also provided with both the division of information about their work.
In the structure, there are also functional services that solve different strategic objectives and are subject to head the company.
matrix organizational structure has the following advantages:
- reduce the number of levels in the hierarchy of large enterprises - their number is about five.
- reaction increases flexibility when changing product demand.Thereby increasing profit organization.
- All technical policy of the company becomes unified.
- The quality of manufactured products, which increases the company's competitiveness in the market.
- Senior executives removed from a number of powers and delegate their managers.
However, such organizations have a management structure and a big disadvantage.Since the divisions related to production, then there are situations when they come from disparate orders.In this case, the company develop detailed instructions for action.But still in the organization with a matrix structure often caused disputes.Sometimes they are resolved for a long time, since each division protect their interests.
The disadvantage of this structure can also be attributed:
- Its bulkiness, complexity and cost of implementation.
- Great tendency to anarchy.
- There is a likelihood of "war" for the power, since the powers sometimes are not strictly specified, and the rights and responsibilities of a number of "vague".
- more overhead, as an organization has a significant number of people.
- There is frequent duplication of certain functions.
- sometimes decisions are taken late, as many of them are discussed in the group.
matrix structure has two areas of management.Vertical - includes control of linear and functional units of the organization.Horizontal - guide individual programs, projects and products.
matrix organizational structure is characterized by the fact that there are several managers.Some departments manage, monitor the implementation of other projects.But at the same time, management should strive to maintain a balance between such organizational alternatives.
hallmark of the matrix structure is the fact that all the employees of the two leaders.However, they have absolutely equal rights.That is, the head of the Executive is subject to the functional services as well as the manager who controls the project.As a result, this should increase the efficiency of the entire company.