In spring and summer especially important question about ticks.What is this creature, which carries the disease tick people, dogs and cats, how to remove the pest?These issues are discussed below.
ticks Feature: who they are and where to live?
mites - tiny spider-like animals that dig into the skin to feed on blood.In total there are about thirty thousand species.
In nature ticks are found in damp places: deciduous forests, lawns with high grass, marshland.The greatest activity of these parasites exhibit throughout the summer.
Getting on exposed skin, they begin to feed on the blood of a living creature.But, unlike mosquitoes, which can kill or drive away from the tick is not so easy to get rid of.He sticks to the skin, and if you remove the wrong head and leave it in the body, even after the death of a bloodsucker will release toxic substances and infect the body.
What diseases brings people tick?
If the time to notice the tick and remove it from the body, the effects on the body will not be any.But if you do not detect the parasite, the person begins to weaken and can become ill one of serious diseases.
Diseases carried by ticks, a person manifest themselves in different ways:
- Tick-borne encephalitis.There are two forms: the light or the first, which is characterized by non-specific fever with a headache, muscle pain and fatigue, and severe, and the second, which is accompanied by the involvement of the central nervous system as a result of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis.Complications are possible only in the absence of treatment.
- Lyme disease.Diagnosis is based on symptoms, physical manifestations (eg, rash), and the possibility of exposure to infected ticks.Antibiotics are usually helpful.But if you start treatment immediately, the Lyme disease can cause serious problems with the joints, nervous system and heart.
- Spotted Fever.Infections most often occur in the peak activity of ticks.This is serious or even fatal disease if not treated in the first few days after the appearance of symptoms.Possible complications: inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), inflammation of the heart or lungs, kidney failure, a serious infection that lead to amputation of the affected limb, and death.
- Tularemia.It is a rare infectious disease.Highly contagious and the potential death.Amenable to treatment in a short time after the detection of symptoms with antibiotics.Possible complications: inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia), an infection around the brain and spinal cord (meningitis), irritation around the heart (pericarditis), bone infections (osteomyelitis).
- Ehrlichiosis.Diagnosis is based on symptoms, clinical tests.Without timely treatment of ehrlichiosis can have serious consequences for a healthy adult or child.People with weakened immune systems are at higher risk of serious and potentially life-threatening effects: kidney failure, respiratory failure, heart failure, seizures, coma.
- relapsing fever.It is characterized by episodic attacks of fever that lasts a few days and then passes, followed by another attack.This process may be repeated one to four times.Given proper treatment most patients recover within a few days.Long term complications are rare, but include various diseases in neuropathy.
- Babesiosis.The disease destroys red blood cells and causes a specific type of anemia called "hemolytic anemia," which may lead to jaundice (yellowing of the skin) and dark urine.The disease is particularly dangerous for people who have a weak immune system due to various reasons (eg, cancer, lymphoma, or AIDS), there are other serious diseases (eg, liver or kidney).Possible complications is low and unstable blood pressure, severe hemolytic anemia (hemolysis), very low platelet count (thrombocytopenia), disseminated intravascular coagulation, which can lead to blood clots and bleeding, breakdown of the vital organs (e.g., kidney, lung, liver), death.
symptoms of diseases carried by ticks
Some people have an allergic reaction to the bite of a tick.It can be easy with a few annoying symptoms.In rare cases, a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis).
Many of the diseases from tick bites are flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, muscle pain and so on.Manifestations may begin as soon as the first day after the tick bite, and only the third week.
Examples of possible symptoms of specific tick-borne diseases
Diseases carried by ticks people
Symptoms list and the time of their existence
Fatigueheadache, stiff neck, fever, pain in muscles and joints and sometimes a red rash that looks like a bull's-eye.
most often seen in a few days after infection.
sudden fever, severe headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, nausea and vomiting.
rash usually is a lot of tiny, flat, red or purple spots (petechiae).It starts at the wrists and ankles, then spreads to the arms, legs and other parts of the body.
Chills and fever up to 41,1 ° C, often begins suddenly, headache, ulcer (open wound) on the site of the bite, swollen glands near the affected area, nausea andvomiting.
Symptoms usually appear within twenty-one days (but the average from the first to the tenth day) after a tick bite.
fever, chills, headache, general feeling unwell (malaise), nausea and vomiting, purple or red rash.
Symptoms usually occur with the first to the twenty-first day (average seven days) after a tick bite.
High fever that starts suddenly, headache, rapid heartbeat, muscle pain (myalgia), abdominal pain, malaise, rash (50% of cases).
Symptoms usually begin to appear from the third to the eleventh day (an average of six days) after a tick bite.
There may be fever and chills.
incubation period is relatively short, so the symptoms are literally within three to four days.
malaise, loss of appetite, fatigue, fever, chills, sweating, which occurs suddenly and also runs, muscle pain (myalgia).
shown from first to fourth weeks after the tick bite.
What diseases ticks carry dogs and cats?
As mentioned above, mites "hunt" for all living beings.That is, dogs and cats can also bring home intruder.
Diseases carried by ticks in dogs can manifest themselves by different symptoms:
- Granulocyte anaplasmosis.Most dogs are susceptible to the disease eight years and older.Symptoms: fever, lack of appetite, lethargy, muscle pain.In rare cases, vomiting and diarrhea, cough, cramps.The incubation period lasts from one week to two.
- babesiosis or piroplasmosis.Most dogs are prone to fighting breeds.Common symptoms include lethargy, refusal of food, fever.The dog had previously been treated for the disease, may be a carrier of the disease for a long time.Infection occurs during the first twenty four hours.The incubation period lasts from one week to three.
- Lyme disease, or borreliosis.Most often the disease occurs without the appearance of obvious symptoms.But the possibility of loss of appetite, swollen lymph nodes, lameness.Infection occurs after twenty four hours finding a tick on a dog's body.The incubation period lasts a month.
- Monocyte ehrlichiosis.Precise data on the incubation period is not.But the symptoms can be absolutely any.The severity of the disease caused by the general state of health of the dog.
- Gepatozoonoz.The disease, which is not transmitted through the bite of the tick, and in contact with the parasite in the gastrointestinal tract of the dog.Possible symptoms: chills and fever, pale mucous membranes, weight loss, lethargy, muscle pain.
- infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia.The incubation period lasts from eight to fifteen days.Possible symptoms of severe illness: chills and fever, pale mucous membranes, lethargy pet, bleeding from the nose, enlarged lymph nodes.
- Acne.Symptoms: loss of hair, baldness certain parts of the body, small wounds.
- ear mites.Symptoms: persistent itching in the ear, its redness, the presence of copious amounts of dark brown or black sulfur constant winding head.
And what diseases ticks carry cats?In fact, many owners of cats that live in the city, consider that if the animal is not to go out, then he was not afraid of the tick.The parasite can get into an apartment in several ways.For example, through an open window or things host.Diseases carried by ticks cats may be different:
- Acne (symptoms are the same as in dogs).
- tick cheyletiella.Possible symptoms include skin peeling, hair loss some parts of the body, the appearance of sores.
- Feline scabies.Symptoms: The wounds on the body as a result of constant scratching the itching, hair loss.
- Lyme disease (for details see above).
- ear mites (for details see above).
How to remove a tick?
If you are not sure that you can pull yourself out of a skin parasite, that is, remove it completely, it is best not to carry out the procedure at home, and get to the nearest medical facility.After illness, which carry ticks, and can spread through his head.
bloodsucker can delete the following tools:
- curved forceps;
- surgical clip;
- special hook to extract the tick from the body (you can find in a drugstore).
How to remove a tick:
- tool is wiped with alcohol for disinfection.
- forceps or clamp is placed as close as possible to the parasite proboscis.
- mite captured and slightly tightened.
- tool rotates around its axis in the same direction.
- After a few turns of the parasite is removed along with the proboscis.
If you do not have the right tools, the tick can be removed with a simple thread.To do this, at the end of the thread loop and throw with it on the tick.Then pull the yarn smoothly shataya it from side to side.
What not to do when the pull ticks?
pulling the parasite from the body in any case not be using sunflower or other oil.Diseases carried by ticks, can be transmitted together with substances that otrygnet parasite because of blockage oil proboscis.
You also can not use the following substances:
- corrosive liquids (eg, ammonia or gasoline);
- various ointments.
When removing a tick is not necessary to perform the following steps:
- zoom fire to the parasite;
- sharply pull the tool;
- use dirty tools;
- tick picks open wound and the needle;
- parasite crush fingers.
What to do after pulled out of the skin mite?
No matter where the parasite has been removed (meaning how long after the bite), it is recommended to do the following procedures:
- few days to monitor the temperature and the state of health in general.
- Monitor the bite site: goeth swelling, redness, swelling and so on.
- Seek medical advice if you find a malaise or a tick has been removed after a long time.
- take those medicines that the doctor prescribes.
If you want to make sure that the disease carried by ticks, you are not afraid, that is, you do not have time to get infected, you can take a blood test.Only once it makes no sense to spend.Some diseases can be detected only after a couple of weeks after an unpleasant contact with the parasite.
How to reduce risk?
Why ticks carry the disease?Answer this question does not exist.But you can prevent infection by the parasite.To do this, there are a number of preventive measures.
General measures to reduce the number of ticks in a given area:
- processing site specific chemicals in the early spring to kill adults and eggs laid.
- Rodent and pest.
- Bevel high grass (lawn mowing and weed removal).
- Burning fallen leaves that are left to the winter.
- Planting some types of plants, which produced insecticides, repellents ticks.An example is the Caucasus, Dalmatian and Persian daisy.
Preventive measures for humans
- Avoid long stay in the forest, swamp and tall grass.
- Land, which could potentially be mites, visit the fully clothed (high collar and a hat are required).
- Use the special tools that are designed to deter ticks.It may be sprays, acting on the principle of repellents or repellents electrical emitting ultrasonic pulses special irritating ear mites.Human and animal ear does not catch them.
- After walking in potentially hazardous locations inspect your clothes and skin.
Preventive measures for animals
- Occasionally treat your pet with special preparations, which are sold in pet stores and veterinary pharmacies.This can be shampoos, sprays, drops and medicines.
- Put a cat or a dog collar, flea and tick repellent.
- On arrival home, inspect your pet.Even in a city can be mites that will not stick to the man and the dog can.
Always be alert and attentive to nature, examine yourself, your family and pets after walking.Timely detect and remove the tick does not cause much harm.