Gonadotropic hormones and their functions

raznostrukturnyh Hormones are organic substances that can affect the functioning of the human body.HCG affect the operation of the reproductive system.They are synthesized in the anterior lobe of the pituitary and thence secreted into the blood.

anterior pituitary hormones

The pituitary gland is divided into two parts: the front and rear.In front of the hormones directly synthesized and secreted into the bloodstream.The posterior lobe of the hypophysis and come from the hypothalamus and secreted into the blood under certain circumstances.

HCG pituitary gland stimulate the sexual glands.These include:

  • FSH - follicle stimulating hormone.It promotes oogenesis and spermatogenesis.It is a complex protein (glycoprotein), which is composed of amino acids joined with carbohydrates.
  • LH - luteinizing hormone.It promotes the release of an egg from the ovary, influences the secretion of sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone), in men causes the secretion of androgens.The amount of the hormone varies during one menstrual cycle, and is proportional to a certain number of synchronous secretion of FSH and LH.
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hormone production is carried out in gonadotropah (basophil cells) adenohypophysis.They make up about 15% of all cells of the anterior lobe.

pregnancy hormones - HCG

If fertilization and implantation of the ovum in the uterine wall in a woman's body begins to produce specific pituitary gonadotropic hormones presented chorionic gonadotropin.

The function of the hormone is to maintain operation of the corpus luteum (the allocation of estrogen and progesterone) before the full maturation of the placenta.It provides high luteinizing effect on the body, which largely exceeds the FSH and LH.

Structural features hormones

biological activity of hormones provides their unique structure, which consists of two subunits.First, the a-subunit, has practically the same structure in all gonadotropic hormones, whereas b-subunit provides a unique effect of the hormone.

Individually, these subunits are not any effect on the body, but when they join, provided their biological activity and the impact on the life processes of the body, especially the reproductive system.Thus, gonadotropic hormones have important effects not only in the sexual sphere, and endocrine processes, and the regulation of hormone balance.

How hormones affect the body

Ever since ancient times, scientists have sought to study the biological activity of the hormones and their effects on the human body.HCG greatly influence the life processes of the human body.Therefore, the study of the mechanism of their action is very important and interesting question.In conducting research with labeled hormone was found that the cells are able to recognize certain hormones and bind only to specific cells.

binding process is performed by having the cell membrane or within the cell itself a protein molecule - receptor.Intracellular reception relates to steroid hormones, since they tend to penetrate cells and affect its operation.Membrane reception characteristic of a protein hormone that binds to the membrane of the cell membrane.

hormone binding to the receptor protein contributes to the formation of the complex.This stage takes place without the involvement of enzymes, is reversible.Steroid hormones enter cells bind to the receptor.After transformation formed complex enters the nucleus of cells and promotes formation of a specific RNA in the cytoplasm which the enzymatic synthesis of particles causing effect of hormones on the cell.

HCG: roles and influence on the processes of the reproductive system

FSH reaches the most active in females.It stimulates the growth of the follicular cells, which under the influence of GSIK turn into bubbles and mature to the stage of ovulation.

Under the influence of an increase in the mass of SFS ovaries and testes.However, even with the introduction of artificial synthetic hormone is impossible to cause the development of the interstitial tissue, which affects the secretion of testicular androgens nature.

GSIK responsible for ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum in the ovaries.Also in conjunction with follicle stimulating hormone, it affects the secretion of estrogens.Under the influence of a hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells, growth of the authorities responsible for secondary sex characteristics.

Biological effects

LTG LTG is very similar to growth hormone.After the laboratory tests it was found that they are in one molecule, however a person can not separately identify each one of these hormones.The functions of the LTG includes milk secretion and progesterone.It is important to note that these processes are due to the interaction of a large number of hormones, since exposure of the body only LTG these functions do not occur.

example, to highlight the milk, the following hormones:

  • FSH and GSIK - cause secretion of estrogen in the ovaries;
  • under the influence of growth hormone and estrogen is a growth of the milk ducts;
  • LTG causes secretion of progesterone in the corpus luteum;
  • progesterone stimulates the full development of the mammary gland in the alveolar-lobed level.

HCG require regular interaction to ensure full activity of the body and all its systems.It is therefore a separate influence of each of them (in the case of administration of synthetic hormones) does not cause the expected reactions.

hypothalamic hormones

hypothalamus releases gonadotropin releasing into the blood hormone.It has a polypeptide structure and affects the secretion of pituitary hormones.To a greater extent it affects luteinizing hormone and follicle then.GnRH produced a well-defined time intervals, in women, they range from 15 to 45 minutes (depending on the cycle), and the male hormone secreted every 90 minutes.

With artificial synthetic hormone administered through a dropper violated function of hormone secretion, which is to strengthen the short-term secretion, and then - in the complete cessation of production of gonadotropin-releasing hormone by the anterior pituitary.

process effects of GnRH on the body

GnRH stimulation of the anterior pituitary provides share, the cells of which (gonadotropins) have a specific receptor for GnRH secretion of FSH and luteinizing hormone, which, in turn, affect the sex glands.

FG stimulates the maturation of sperm and egg cells, LH affects the secretion of sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone).Under the influence of sex hormones reproductive system cells ripen and are ready for insemination.

When excessively fast flow processes oogenesis and spermatogenesis released inhibin influencing gonadotropic hormones of the anterior pituitary gland to slow the maturation of germ cells by affecting the follicle-stimulating hormone.

Why use gonadotropic preparations

Increasingly common in medical practice treatment by introducing artificial hormones.In certain endocrine diseases or disorders of the reproductive system of a human gonadotrophins preparations are applied.Their administration to a certain extent influence the production of sex hormones and on the processes occurring in the body.

In case of violation of the synthesis of gonadotropins can develop certain endocrine disorders (miscarriages in the first trimester, sexual immaturity, sexual infantilism, Simmonds disease and Sheehan's syndrome).

To counteract these pathologies, conducted blood tests and hormonal analysis of its composition.Then prescribers needed to recover the correct balance of hormones and, respectively, the regulation of vital processes in the body.