In the early 70-ies in the Soviet Union there were some artillery units with "flower" names "Carnation", "Acacia", "tulip", "Hyacinth" and "Peony".Self-propelled howitzer "Pink" was created to engage and destroy the enemy's manpower, artillery and mortar units.Using it provides a passageway for the mine fields and through various obstacles.These units are very fast and maneuverable.
word "howitzer" is derived from the German haubitze.Translated, it means a weapon that is designed for throwing stones.Speaking of artillery, the howitzer - military tool for firing at ground targets at an angle of 70 degrees.If you open the dictionary, the meaning of this word is variously described, but the basic meaning is not changed.
Howitzer - it's the same gun, but with a smaller length of the barrel.The speed of the projectile at the beginning of the motion also gives speed gun.The walls of the barrel howitzer made thinner.If the two shells of equal size, then their weight is much different.The gun is a lot harder.
propelled installation "Carnation" is an artillery system, which is still used by armed forces around the world.
creation and development of the first self-propelled gun mounts in the Soviet Union
At all times of wars and battles needed a technique that could accompany the advancing troops and support them with fire.Artillery guns had many varieties.But it was not mobile.
By the early 20th century, the level of knowledge allow designers to focus on creating a self-propelled guns.VD Mendeleev in 1916 offered to the military court of its development - a very heavy car on the tracks "Bronehod."She had a protective armor and guns.In the same year, Colonel artillery tractor Gulkevichi proposed project creep.It was built at the Obukhov steel plant.His 3-armed hdyuymovoy gun and 2 machine guns and armor sheathed.The following year, the designer NN Lebedenco created military vehicle on two wheels.In 1920 Russian industrialists in Nizhny Novgorod released a whole batch of tanks.The idea of creating the French they learned by studying the captured tank company "Renault".
in the 20s to the development of machines came seriously.There was a competition for the best proposal for the design and construction of armored vehicles.In 1922, the project "Ship AM" won the first prize.Despite a lot of 10 tons, the machine could float on water.At the same time in service she had a 76 mm gun.
great importance for the development of new types of weapons was the establishment of the Commission of special artillery experiments.Under the leadership of a former Russian army general VM Trofimov Committee studied the problems of ballistics and develop new types of weapons.
in 1922-23.self-propelled artillery battalion set up at the factory "Red Arsenal."While the country was not in the best position, industrial and economic base made it impossible to engage in mass production of these plants.In the late 20's - early 30-ies on the creation of new types of weapons employed such plants, "Red Putilovets" them.Kalinin №8, «Red Arsenal» №7, Kharkiv Locomotive, "Bolshevik" - as well as many designers.
At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War the attention self-propelled artillery, and almost did not give back to this issue after the victory.
Construction of the 2S1
Creating ACS "Carnation" was launched following the resignation of Khrushchev July 4, 1967.This was due to the fact that the Soviet artillery machinery behind the west.After World War II in service in the Soviet Army did not have such self-propelled guns.Create howitzers instructed Design Bureau, who worked at the plant "Uralmash".Supervised project FF Petrov.And for chassis posted Kharkiv Tractor Plant and personally Designer AF Belousov.Experts analyzed all specifications artorudy that have been released over the past few decades.And in no time established a system of "Carnation" - setting, photos are presented below.
Tower and chassis
functions of the base chassis to install took the tractor MT-LB.For greater stability of the chassis we have added another rink.
Track SAU 2S1 "Carnation" was equipped with a place for the driver and had such offices: two combat, control, and power pack.
driver-mechanic was the space that had sealed the fence from the rest of the blocks are in the 2S1 "Carnation".
In front of the tower was the gunner on the left, to the right - the charging instrument was located behind the gunner commander installation.
rear housing have been set up storage space for ammunition.To facilitate loading of howitzers in the tower have established mechanisms to dosylka shells and cartridges.By means of special electrical or manual drive tower unfolded 360 degrees.
ACS "Carnation" is a tremendous opportunity for playing in tight spaces.This is due to the tracks.They are made of rubber and metal.Their width at the base of the model is 400 mm.It is possible to replace them with 670 mm tracks.This will improve the cross-2S1 "Carnation".The movable body support (road wheels) equipped with individual suspension with torsion bars.In addition, the first and seventh wheel mounted hydraulic dampers.The drive wheels are located in front of the combat vehicle, have gear rings that can be replaced when they are worn.Track tension is provided by a mechanism that is inside the housing.SAU "Carnation" is endowed with the ability to move through the water, overcoming obstacles, the width of which can be up to 300 m. The height of the wave at the same time should not be more than 150 mm, and the flow must not exceed the speed of 0.6 meters per second.The buoyancy of the machine is provided by an internal air chamber.It was created by welding two discs between the outer ring with a bandage made of rubber and the hub.The maximum speed of movement of self-propelled guns 2S1 "Carnation" it does not exceed 4.5 km per hour.When traveling on the water number of shots should not be more than 30.
Body and interior
missile launcher "Carnation" is an armored corps.It is made of steel 20 mm plate.This protection allows you to protect the car and the crew from small arms lung injury, shrapnel and mines.The armor can withstand a bullet with a diameter of 7.62 mm, which was released at a distance of 300 meters from the rifle.
fuel tank 2S1 "Carnation" - a six tanks, interconnected, three on each side.The total volume is 550 liters.This is enough for a distance of 500 km on the highway.
Engine for self-propelled guns produced Yaroslavl Motor Works.Four-stroke diesel engine has eight cylinders and a V-shape, is located in front.Its power is 240 hp.
ACS "Carnation" is equipped with a transmission with 11 forward speeds and 2 reverse.
2S1 self-propelled howitzer can be transported by air using the AN-12, IL-76, AN-124.
shells for "Carnations»
Currently, there are many types of shells that can use the installation "Carnation".
Standard set of equipment: 35 high-explosive and 5 cumulative.All munitions are located along the sides of the hull and turret.
dwell on those shells, which are suitable for use in ACS 2S1 "Carnation".
1. high-explosive shells.Penetration is low.But the most commonly used as cause enormous damage.Ingestion tank shell explodes.This leads to huge losses.If the projectile does not break through the armor, he can not do more harm.To protect the use of special screens that do not allow to penetrate the outer skin of the tank.
2. Cumulative ammunition.It is better to pierce armor due to the formation of the kinetic energy, as if burning through it thoroughly.Penetration does not deteriorate with increasing distance to the target.Protection can serve as a special lattice screens.
3. Lighting shells.They are intended to illuminate the area, or to play back in the dark (night) time.Apply when dropped from aircraft or power equipment.For braking parachutes used their movements.
4. Propaganda ammunition.Is used to inform the population, which is in the occupied territories or in inaccessible areas.
5. Shells electronic countermeasures.Impact on enemy air defense radar.Interfere with various radio waves.
6. Chemical munitions.Aimed at poisoning the enemy poisons and chemicals.The shells can be broken muffled or loud.It depends on the boiling point of the chemical.After hitting the target formed a toxic cloud.
7. Smoke rounds.Blind and put a thick smoke screen.Recommended for use when the sun is behind the clouds, at low wind speed.This will increase the effect of smoke.
8. Shells with special striking elements.Their use is not authorized by the Hague Convention because of the severity of the wounds inflicted.Inside the shell are tipped arrows.
To fire ammunition that are stacked beside the car, it provides a large tailgate and transport device for feeding inside the compartment.
To create a self-propelled howitzer used D-30, which had already been in service in many countries of the world.2S1 self-propelled artillery "Carnation" demanded the reconstruction and completion of the D-30.So there was a modification of the D-32 (2A31), which perfectly meet the new requirements.122 mm howitzer "Carnation" was released thanks to the KB №9 and designer AF Belousov.The main differences from its predecessor - is the presence of a dual-chamber muzzle brake and an ejector.Inside the barrel rifling 36 is applied.The length of the entire pipe - 4270 mm, the length of the charging chamber - 594 mm.The whole receiver group has a mass of 955 kg.Now such devices equipped with all modern artillery installations.Damage to the ejection device will cause that staff will not be able to proceed without masks.
gun barrel can be induced in a vertical position from -3 to +70 degrees.Targeting is done with an eye to the PG-2 and OP 5-37.The gun has a vertical wedges.Re-cocked by means of semi-automatic mechanism.The entire shutter mechanism has a weight of 35.65 kg.
cumulative projectiles PD-1 setting fires with a special charge-F 8.Flight distance can be up to 2 km.The projectile begins to move at a speed of 740 meters per second.
If shooting is done explosive charge, range can reach 15.3 km.When firing rocket-assisted projectile, it increases to 21.9 km.The minimum distance at which can be sent to a munition of 4.07 km.
«Carnation" is not a high-velocity technique.When firing "from the ground" gun can produce 4-5 rounds per minute.If the fire are reserve shells on board, then there is 1-2 shots per minute.
Technical and tactical data
- The crew - 4 people.
- full combat weight - 15 700 kg.
- dimensions: length - 7.265 m, width - 2.85 m, height - 2,285 m.
- armor - steel 2 cm.
- Cannon - howitzer with a 122 mm barrel D-32.
- Combat Kit - a maximum of 40 rounds.
- Rate - 4-5 rounds per minute (maximum).
- firing range - 4,07-15 km.
- Maximum travel speed on the highway - 60 km / h.
- maximum speed of movement of water - 4.5 km / h.
- distance on one refueling - a maximum of 500 km.
- can overcome obstacles: a wall height of 0.7 m, 2.75 m wide trench.
The set of accessories includes such components:
surveillance device commander BDIN-3 sight PG-1 artillery system fire control PG-2, night gunner's sight PP81MN, night vision device driver TVN-M2, diesel engine YMZ-238N-1.
car had adopted almost all the countries of the Warsaw Pact.Until now, the gun mount "Carnation" is used around the world.Today its modification equipped with laser-guided "Kitolov-2."It has been specifically designed for self-propelled guns in the Instrument Design Bureau in Tula.Such a shell without any labor strikes armored mobile and stationary targets."Kitolov-2" have adopted in 2002.Projectile weight is 28 kg, length - 1190 mm.
still continues to serial production 2S1 self-propelled howitzer with a 122 mm barrel.
Last renovation was carried out in 2003.In the city of Perm in the company "MZ" install new equipment received in the form of automatic guidance and fire control.After that, SAU was given a new designation - 2S1M1.
Installation "Carnation" is in such countries:
- Azerbaijan - 62 pieces.
- Algeria - 145 pieces.
- Armenia - 10 pieces.
- Belarus - 246 pieces.
- Bulgaria - 306 pieces.
- Bosnia and Herzegovina - 5 pieces.
- Hungary - 153 pieces.
- Georgia - 12 pieces.
- Democratic Republic of the Congo - 12 pieces.
- Kazakhstan - 10 pieces.
- Poland - 533 pieces.
- Republic of Serbia - 75 pieces.
- Russia - 2000 pieces.
- Romania - 6 pieces.
- Syria - 400 pieces.
- Slovakiya- 49 pieces.
- Ukraine - 580 pieces.
- And in Angola, Iraq, Yemen, Libya, the Czech Republic and Ethiopia.
propelled howitzer "Carnation" was made not only in Russia.The right to receive its manufacturing Poland and Bulgaria.
in the Russian army, these howitzers are restricted.They are used in artillery mountain infantry brigade and a Marine.The most popular 152 mm howitzer.
Until August 2014 artillery unit 2S1 "Carnation" made at factories in Kharkov.
After the crisis in Ukraine has led to a military confrontation, the owner of the plant, Russian Oleg Deripaska, have banned production of this weapon.In addition, the company did not renew the license for the release of all terrain vehicle and light-armored trucks.
«Carnations" as exhibits
Single copies ACS "Carnation" can be seen in museums around the world.In Russia, these war machines are installed in the form of artifacts or memorabilia pedestals in twelve places.
The Museum of Technology Vadim Zadorozhnogo (Moscow Region), in the memorial complex "Guerrilla glade" (Bryansk), Krasnoarmeysk Moscow region near the Research Institute "Geodesy" in the capital's Victory Park, in the Suvorov Military School (Moscow), in St. Petersburg, Yalutorovsk and other cities.
In Belarus "Carnation" is in the Gomel regional museum of military glory and historical-cultural complex "Stalin Line".
In Poland, these models are available in five military museums in the United States - three, in the Czech Republic - in one.
In Ukraine, these self-propelled guns are 6 exhibitions in different cities of the country.
should be used to protect the buildings of concrete, wall thickness is not less than 50-70 cm. The building blocks for the foundation to create the perfect hiding place.If you need protection in the city, it is best to use the old bomb shelter, catacombs and basements with good depth.Very dangerous is the direct hit.
howitzer shells and guns have the ability to greatly dissipated in the direction of their movement.Therefore, they do not apply for the destruction of small goals.Effectively, they can be used only if the function of the laser homing missiles.In this connection, it is recommended to move perpendicular to the intended direction of fire, increasing the distance between the parties to the colonies and the speed of its movement.