The history of biology.

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From the first days of life, the child seeks to understand the world around them.The older he gets, the more interesting and fun it becomes a reality.The world is changing with it.So all mankind in its development is not in place.All the new discoveries have captured.What was impossible yesterday, it is becoming commonplace affair.A huge contribution to modern scientific and technological progress is making science biology.It examines all aspects of life, exploring the stages of the origin and evolution of living organisms.It is noteworthy that in a separate branch of this science identified only in the XIX century, though knowledge about the world of mankind accumulating throughout its development.The history of biology is very interesting and entertaining.Many people may ask: why do we need to study this science?It would seem, though it involved scientists.How does this discipline will help the common man?But without a basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology is not possible, for example, recover from even the common cold.This science is able to give answers to the most difficult questions.The main thing that can shed light biology - the development of life on Earth.

Science in antiquity

Modern biology has its roots in antiquity.It is inextricably linked with the development of civilizations in antiquity in the Mediterranean space.The first discoveries in this field have made such outstanding figures as Hippocrates, Aristotle, Theophrastus and others.The contribution of scientists in the development of biology is priceless.Let us more detail on each of them.The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates (460 - c. 370 BC. E.) Gave the first detailed description of the structure of the human body and animals.He pointed to how environmental factors and heredity may influence the development of certain diseases.Modern scholars have called the founder of the Hippocratic medicine.Outstanding Greek thinker and philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC. E.) Divided the world into four kingdoms: the world of humans and animals, the plant world, the inanimate world (earth), the world of water and air.He did a lot of descriptions of animals, thus initiating the taxonomy.His hand owns four biological treatise, which contain all known information at the time of the animals.This scientist gave not only an external description of representatives of the kingdom, but also thinking about their origin and propagation.He described the first live birth in sharks and the presence of special masticatory system in sea urchins, called today "Aristotelian lantern."Modern scholars have appreciated the achievements of the ancient thinker and believe that Aristotle is the founder of zoology.The ancient Greek philosopher Theophrastus (370-c. 280 BC. E.) Studied the world of plants.He described the more than 500 representatives of the kingdom.It was he who coined the many botanical terms such as "fruit", "pericarp", "core" and so on.Theophrastus, scientists considered the founder of modern botany.

is also worth mentioning the works in the development of biology Roman scholars such as Guy Pliny the Elder (22-79 years.) And Claudius Galen (131 years - 200).The naturalist Pliny the Elder wrote an encyclopedia, entitled "Natural History", which contained all the known information at the time of living organisms.Up until the Middle Ages, his work consists of 37 volumes, is the only complete source of knowledge about nature.Outstanding physician, surgeon and philosopher of his time, Claudius Galen, made an enormous contribution to the concept and the development of sciences such as anatomy, pharmacology, physiology, neurology and others. In their studies, it is widely used autopsy mammals.He first described and compared the anatomy of the human and ape.Its main purpose was to study the central and peripheral nervous system.On recognition of his merits colleagues says that his work on the anatomy, based on autopsies of pigs and monkeys, used until 1543, has not yet appeared labor Andreas Vesalius' On the structure of the human body. "Students of medical institutions to study the works of Galen to the XIX century.And his theory that the nervous system with the help of the brain controls movement, still relevant today.It is better to understand how the emergence and study of this science throughout history, will help us to table "Development of biology."Here are its main founders.

development of science


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gave the first description of the structure of the human body and animal


divided the world into four kingdoms, marked the beginning of the taxonomy


Described more than 500 species of plants

Guy Pliny the Elder

Encyclopedia "Natural History»

Claudius Galen

Compared anatomy of the human and ape

Leonardo da Vinci

described many plants, human anatomy

Andreas Vesalius

founders of scientific anatomy


classification system of plants and animals

Carl Baer

laid the foundation of embryology

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

work "Philosophy of Zoology»

Theodor Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schleiden

Created cell theory

Charles Darwin

work "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection»

Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch Mechnikov

experiments in microbiology

Gregor Mendel, Hugo de Vries

founders of genetics

Medieval medicine

contribution of scientists in the development of biology in these times is huge.Knowledge of Greek and Roman figures included in his practice many physicians of the Middle Ages.This medicine while most developed.A significant part of the Roman Empire at that time conquered by the Arabs.Therefore, the works of Aristotle and many other ancient scholars have come to us in the translation into Arabic.The era was marked by this in terms of biology?This was the so-called Golden Age of Islam.It is worth noting the works of such scientists as Al-Jahiz, who then for the first time expressed his opinion about the food chain and evolution.He is the founder of geographical determinism - the science of the influence of environmental conditions on the formation of the national character and spirit.A Kurdish writer Ahmad ibn Dawood al-Dinavari has done much for the development of Arabic botany.He made a description of the 637 different species of plants.The great interest in the world of flora is the tendency in medicine treatment medicinal herbs.High altitude medical doctor reached Persia - Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi.He then experimentally denied reigning theory of Galen "four vital juices."Outstanding Persian physician Avicenna has created one of the most valuable books on medicine under the name of "Canon of Medicine", a textbook for European scientists up to the XVII century.We have to admit that during the Middle Ages a few scientists have achieved fame.It was the era of prosperity theology and philosophy.Scientific medicine was then in decline.This situation was observed until the beginning of the Renaissance.The following will describe the steps in the biology of this time interval.

Biology in the Renaissance

In the XVI century, interest in the physiology and natural history in Europe intensified.Anatomy practiced dissection of human bodies after death.In 1543 he published a book called Vesalius' On the structure of the human body. "The history of biology is making a new round.In medicine, the treatment was common herbs.This could not but affect the growing interest in the world of flora.Fuchs and Brunfels in his writings laid the foundation for large-scale description of the plant.Even artists of the time were interested in the structure of the bodies of animals and humans.They painted their pictures, working side by side with the naturalists.Leonardo da Vinci and Albrecht Dürer in the creation of his masterpieces have tried to get the detailed description of the anatomy of living bodies.The first of these, by the way, often watching the flight of birds, talked about many plants, shared information on the structure of the human body.No less significant contribution to the science of that era brought and scholars such as alchemists, encyclopedic, doctors.An example of this is the work of Paracelsus.Thus, it is clear that the development of pre-Darwinian biology in the period there was a very uneven.

XVII century

The most important finding of this time - the discovery of the second circulation, which gave new impetus to the development of anatomy and appearance of the doctrine of microorganisms.At the same time made the first microbiological studies.First a description was given of plant cells, which can be considered only under the microscope.This device, by the way, was invented by John Lippersgeem and Zacharias Janssen in 1590 in Holland.The unit improved all the time.And soon craftsman Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, was interested in microscopes, were able to see and sketch the red blood cells, human sperm, as well as a number of very small living organisms (bacteria, ciliates, and so on).The development of biology as a science at this time goes to a whole new level.Much has been made in the field of physiology and anatomy.A doctor from England, William Harvey, reveals the animal and conduct research with blood circulation, he made a number of important discoveries: found venous valves, insulation proved right and left ventricles of the heart.His contribution to the development of biology is hard to overestimate.He discovered the pulmonary circulation.A scientist from Italy, Francesco Redi, proved the impossibility of spontaneous generation of flies from the remnants of rotten meat.

history of biology in the XVIII century

further human knowledge in the natural sciences expanded.The most important events of the XVIII century began publication of the works of Carl Linnaeus ("System of Nature") and Georges Buffon ("The Universal and private natural history").Conducted numerous experiments in the area of ​​plant and animal embryology.Discoveries are made by such scholars as Caspar Friedrich Wolff, who on the basis of the observations showed a gradual development of the embryo of a durable rudiment, and Albrecht von Haller.With these names are associated the most important stages in the development of biology and embryology in the XVIII century.It is, however, to recognize that these scientists have advocated different approaches to the study of science: Wolf - the idea of ​​epigenetic (development of the organism in the bud), and Haller - concept of preformation (presence in the germ cells of special material structures that underpin the development of the embryo).

Science in the XIX century

It is worth mentioning that the development of biology as a science began only in the XIX century.The word already was used by scientists before.However, he had a sense quite different.For example, Carl Linnaeus called biologists people made up the biographies of botanists.But later the word came to be called the science that studies all living organisms.Such topics as the development of biology in the pre-Darwinian period, we have already touched upon.At the beginning of the XIX century was the establishment of a science as paleontology.Discoveries in this area are connected with the name of the greatest scientist - Charles Darwin, who in the second half of the century published a book titled "The Origin of Species."For more details of his work, we shall deal in the next chapter.The emergence of cell theory, the formation of phylogenetics, development of microscopic anatomy and cytology, the formation of the teachings of the occurrence of infectious diseases by infecting specific pathogens, and much more - all this is linked to the development of science in the XIX century.

Works of Charles Darwin's first book

greatest scientist - a "naturalist Travel around the world on the ship."Further, the object of study of Darwin began barnacles.This has resulted in the writing and publication of the four-volume work on the physiology of these animals.This zoologists enjoyed his work so far.Still, the main work of Charles Darwin - a book "The Origin of Species," which he began writing in 1837.The book is supplemented by a few times and reprinted.It was described in detail breeds of domestic animals and plant varieties set out his ideas on natural selection.Evolutionary developmental biology in the notion of Darwin - a variability of species and varieties under the influence of heredity and external environmental factors, as well as their natural origin from earlier species.The scientist came to the conclusion that any plant or animal in nature tends to multiply exponentially.However, the number of the species remains constant.This means that the nature of the law of survival.Strong organisms survive, gaining features useful for all kind, and then multiply, and the weak - are killed in hostile environments.This is called natural (natural) selection.For example, cod female produces up to seven million eggs.It survives only 2% of their total number.But environmental conditions may change.Then prove useful features in a completely different species.As a result, the direction of natural selection changes.External attributes of individuals may change.It appears a new kind, which, while maintaining the favorable factors is settled.Later, in 1868, Charles Darwin published his second work of evolutionary direction, entitled "The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication."However, given his work is not widely recognized.It is necessary to mention another important work of the great scientist - the book "The Descent of Man and sexual selection."In it, he cited many arguments in favor of that man evolved from ape-like ancestors.

What will the century XX?

many global discoveries in science have been made precisely in the last century.At this time, the biology of human development provides a new level.This is the era of genetics.By 1920, he formed the chromosome theory of heredity.And after the Second World War, rapidly began to develop molecular biology.Change the direction of the development of biology.


in 1900 were, so to speak, rediscovered Mendel's laws such scholars as De Vries and others. Soon, this was followed by the opening of cytologists that the genetic material of the cell structures contained in the chromosomes.In 1910-1915, the Working Group scientist Thomas Hunt Morgan, based on experiments with fruit flies (Drosophila) has developed so-called "Mendelian chromosome theory of heredity."Biologists have found that the genes in the chromosomes are arranged linearly, the type of "beads on a string."De Vries - the first scientist who has made the assumption that mutations in the genes.Next, the concept was given genetic drift.And in 1980 the American experimental physicist Luis Alvarez put forward the hypothesis of meteorite extinction of the dinosaurs.

emergence and development of biochemistry

even more outstanding discoveries waiting for scientists in the near future.At the beginning of XX century began active research vitamins.Few were previously open pathways of poisons and drugs, proteins and fatty acids.In the years 1920-1930, scientists Carl and Gerty Cori, and Hans Krebs gave a description of the transformation of carbohydrates.This marked the beginning of the study of the synthesis of porphyrins and steroids.At the end of the century Fritz Lippmann made the following discovery: adenosine triphosphate was recognized as a universal carrier of biochemical energy in the cell, and the main power "station" it was called mitochondria.Devices for laboratory experiments became more sophisticated, new methods of learning, such as electrophoresis and chromatography.Biochemistry is one of the branches of medicine, he stood out as a separate science.

Molecular Biology

All new related subjects appeared in the study of biology.Many scientists have tried to determine the nature of the gene.In conducting research for this purpose a new term "molecular biology".The object of the study began to viruses and bacteria.It was allocated a bacteriophage - a virus that selectively affects cells of certain bacteria.Experiments were also carried out on Drosophila, with bread mold, corn and so on.