Gas and its use were started in ancient times.In Russia, the history of the gas industry begins in 1811 thanks to the creator of Peter Sobolev termolamp.As time went on, the industry has evolved.It explored many fields, and the question arose about the transportation of gas to end users.After all, this kind of fuel was used, not only domestically, but also supplied on the import into Europe.As the most profitable proved to be transported through the pipes, the pipeline was built through Ukraine.
History of the pipeline in Ukraine
Ukraine also developed its own field.The first pipeline was built in 1924.After that, in 1948 was established "Dashava - Kiev", later extended to Moscow (in 1951).That is not Ukraine itself supplied with "blue fuel", as Russia supplied to the country.After that, the export of gas to European countries.Although Ukraine has its own field and is used by most of the Russian fuel.
Conduct pipeline through Ukraine to Europe
first transit of fuel took place in 1967.It then was launched in the USSR gas pipeline to Europe through Ukraine "Valley - Uzhgorod - Western border."The Federal Republic became the world's largest transit.Why to export gas was chosen as it was Ukraine?First of all, because in the Soviet Union build a unified gas system.The second reason was the deteriorating economic situation in the country - the arms race, the investment in the military industrial complex and the confrontation with China made themselves felt.
In 70 years the price of oil and gas on the world market experienced a sharp jump.It was precisely those products that could quickly provide the USSR, and the funds can correct the economic situation.And then it was proposed two options for transit, Ukrainian and uniform.The first proposed route of the pipeline through Ukraine, the second - through all the Soviet republics bordering Europe.Each method had its supporters, but the group supporting the first project had a greater weight in the government of the USSR.These were the leaders who either have long worked in Ukraine, or originating from it - Brezhnev, Chernenko, Scherbitsky Tikhonov, Kirilenko.Besides the republic had considerable weight in the economy of the USSR.As a result, the pipeline route through Ukraine was built to the detriment of the principle of the minimum distance.
composition of the gas transportation system of Ukraine
After collapse of the USSR the former Federal Republic became the owner of the largest gas transportation system (GTS).The main flow passes through the supply pipeline to Europe through Ukraine, which allowed her to dictate certain conditions importing countries and Russia.
Gas transit via neighboring countries - is not only a huge length of main pipes.It is also a lot of meters, storage facilities, compressor stations.All of them have a role in the redistribution of gas and transportation.To visually understand how the pipeline through Ukraine and any trans-shipment points are involved, it is best to see his chart.At first glance, it is simple, but if you see more, you can see and highways, and distribution pipes.
main components of the main gas pipeline
pipeline through Ukraine goes through many cities and towns.The main ones include such important components as compressor stations.Driving a gas pipeline through the Ukraine there are 72 such points.The CTA also included 13 warehouses, 12 of which are actively exploited.Also installed metering devices.On the border with Russia is 12 gas measuring stations and the area bordering with Europe - 11 GIS.
All this equipment and stations are managed by the company "Ukrgaztrans" and its branches located in Kyiv, Lviv, Cherkasy, Carpathians and Donbas.Storage, in which the gas is pumped to Ukraine for further transportation and distribution located in the west, the Donets Basin, in Kiev and Chernihiv regions, and in Dnepropetrovsk.
If you look at the chart and see how the pipeline through Ukraine, we can see that this is not a pipe length of several thousand kilometers.It is a network of branches and connections with service points.
transport gas to Europe via Ukraine
Since the main pipeline through Ukraine transit was built in the Soviet Union after the collapse of the country's economic ties remained.To date, the transit of gas is carried out on the following highways:
- Orenburg - Western Border.
- Urengoy - Pomary - Uzhgorod.
- Yamburg - Western Border.
- Torzhok - Dolina.
- Valley - Uzhgorod.
All are intertwined or run parallel in some areas.And if we talk in general about how the pipeline through Ukraine, we get two main stream.The first of them - "Urengoy - Pomary - Uzhgorod", which is on the territory of the country combined with the "progress".The second - "Union", which starts from the Orenburg field and has been the main export pipeline in the USSR.Strictly speaking, there is no precise scheme, which would show how there is a pipeline through Ukraine.The main export pipeline is "Union", "Friendship", "Progress" and "Urengoy - Pomary - Uzhgorod".
This Russian gas pipeline through Ukraine has been stretched from Orenburg to the western border of the USSR.It was called "The Union".It was a joint construction of allied countries - Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, East Germany and the Soviet Union - in the years 1975-1976.Through him, the gas is transported from the Orenburg field in Western Europe.Its capacity is 26 billion cubic meters a year.
To understand where the pipeline runs through Ukraine, "Union", should be considered maps and charts.Major cities - is Orenburg, Uralsk, Alexandrov Gai, Kremenchug, Valley and Uzhgorod.On the border of Russia and Ukraine's gas measuring station is equipped with a "Pisarevka" (the territory of the Russian Federation), and then left out the gas moves through the territory of Ukraine.
addition to these cities, the highway passes through some more.All of them are equipped with compressor stations to ensure the proper functioning of the system.It Novopskov, Hogs, May Day, Matveevka, Oleksandrivka Talnoe, Gysin, Bar, Gusyatin, Bogorodchany, Hust.Through the gas metering station "Coast", "tekov" and "Uzhgorod" fuel supplied to Romania, Hungary and Slovakia.In the town of Bar is connected to the main line streams "Urengoy - Pomary - Uzhgorod" and "Progress".
pipeline "Urengoy - Pomary - Uzhgorod"
In fact, this is not one pipeline, and a stream of highways.It includes also the pipeline "Progress".Construction was started on the Urengoy field.It was built in cooperation with banks of Germany, Japan and France - they were given credit for the purchase of the necessary components.The project was developed in JSC "YUZHNIIGIPROGAZ" (Donetsk).Pipes for highways were purchased at Khartsyzsk Pipe Plant, truboprokladchiki and equipment - at the world's leading manufacturers from Europe and the United States.The construction in 1983.
This pipeline through Ukraine has a length of 1160 kilometers.It comes into the country it is through gauging station "Sudzha."The route of the pipeline runs through Ukraine 9 compressor stations in the cities of Romney, Hrebinka, Sofiyivka, Stavishche, Ilintsy, Bar, Gusyatin, Bogorodchany, Volovec.In Europe, the gas escapes through the measuring station "Uzhgorod".
power lines to transport fuel is 28 billion cubic meters a year.It is the most powerful pipeline through Ukraine to date.
construction of the gas transmission pipeline is completed in 1988.The route of the gas pipeline through Ukraine coincide with the flow "Urengoy - Pomary - Uzhgorod".Its capacity is 26 bln. Cubic meters per year.It begins on the territory of Russia from the Yamburg field.Length - 1160 km on the territory of Ukraine.On line 9 compressor stations, providing transportation of gas to Europe.
about him, little is known.Starting the pipeline from Punga, near the border with Ukraine goes through Kursk and Ostrogozhsk.Russian gas goes through the pipeline via the gas distribution station "Valuiki" moving to Kiev, and is further divided into several streams.One of them goes to the Western Ukraine, the second - to the Moldovan border.In the future, have been completed highway from Ukhta to Punga on Ukrainian territory transit has become more and carried through the station "Pisarevka" and "Sokhranovka."And the pipeline is not mentioned on the website of the company "Naftogaz", or on the website of "Gazprom".His areas of built and renamed.
export flows "Northern Lights»
main pipeline route goes through the city Bovanenkovo Ukhta Torzhok Valley, Uzhgorod.The line passes through the border of Ukraine and Belarus.Incoming gas measuring station located on the territory of Belarus - GIS "Mozyr".If you pay attention to the commissioning of the plot "Torzhok - Dolina", it will be 90 years, and branch "Bovanenkovo - Ukhta" - 2012.
In Ukraine, the flow of "Northern Lights" is divided into three sections.The first of them - "Torzhok - Dolina".In the final paragraph of this section of the gas is redistributed.The second - "Valley - Uzhgorod".Its capacity is 17 billion cubic meters a year.In Uzhhorod gas again redistributed and falls on the third section - "Uzhgorod - Beregovo."In the year of this highway passes 13 billion cubic meters of gas.
remaining export pipelines
As mentioned above, the gas pipeline through the Ukraine - is a branched network of pipelines connecting suppliers, end users, compressor measurement and distribution points.Therefore, you should mention the other pipelines through which the transit to Europe.This "Komarno-Drozdovychi", "Hust - Satu Mare", "Ananiev - Tiraspol - Izmail" and "Shebelinka - Ishmael."Their total capacity is 34 billion cubic meters a year.
construction of a new gas pipeline "South Stream"
Recent political developments have shown that the export gas pipeline through Ukraine - not exactly a reliable backbone for the transit of fuel to European countries.In addition, frequent breakdowns and explosions of gas pipelines, especially in the strategically important lines "Urengoy - Pomary - Uzhgorod", "Union", "Progress".Therefore designed and built pipelines bypassing through other states.
One of these is the "South Stream".The route of the gas pipeline through Ukraine will not go.It will be held under the Black Sea directly from Russia.It was originally planned to take him through the economic zone of Turkey.But due to the annexation of Crimea to Russia, the draft revision.He will pull through the Black Sea shelf Peninsula.This pipeline will allow Russia not to depend on middlemen and Ukrainian political and economic situation in the country and providing a full transit of gas to European countries.
The situation today is that Ukraine will have to use only their own field and lose income from transit operations.Once the new project, Russia will be able to minimize the supply of gas through neighboring countries, which will make the process uneconomical.The Russian Federation is a country which can not be put ultimatums.