Tradition fleet China rooted in ancient times, they were for many centuries and even millennia.But in today's world, past successes little interest, except that the historians.Today, the club of countries with the most powerful naval force includes China.Navy this country is at different estimates, the third (and in some aspects - the second) location in the world.As a general tonnage it is second only to the US Navy, but combat capabilities lag behind the Russian.Sure, he holds the primacy of the number of personnel.This is typical of all the armed forces, called the People's Liberation Army of China.
Chinese fleet in the first half of the XX century
defeated by Japan in 1895, the country was plunged into a long internecine chaos.The country experienced a period of technical and social backwardness, she experienced the excitement, rebellion, and because the role of the leading maritime power in the region could not play.The budget was meager, the armed forces technically equipped weak.In 1909 there was an attempt of modernization: instead of four fleets (Northern, Canton, Shanghai and Fuzhou), they became three - North, Central and South.As part of each of them was a battleship and a few (seven) cruisers who would rather meet the standards gunboats.It reformed, albeit slowly, governance and infrastructure.Then the government to declare their intention to strengthen the Navy and into the water dozens of modern ships, but the venture failed, once again, for budgetary reasons.It was possible to build only three cruisers and destroyers.After that, the fleet was replenished only once, when it was composed requisitioned during World War I Austro-Hungarian and German ships accidentally visited China.Navy of the country hardly modernized since then until the end of World War II.
in China to China was a powerful and modern navy, was not interested in the post-war world, no country except the Soviet Union, who considered his newly formed China's regional ally in Asia.The first of its steel units inherited from the Navy of the Republic of the KMT obsolete ships, including the sinking of the Japanese raised and repaired gunboat "He Wei."Navy China built anew, and without foreign aid it was not enough.And it had the Soviet comrades.Thousands of military advisers, highly skilled and with combat experience, have done everything to raise a competent staff.In the autumn of 1949 the school was founded Dalian naval officers.In addition, the software has been deployed combat shipbuilding, first on the basis of the projects developed in the USSR.After the transfer of the Chinese side of Port Arthur at the disposal of the PLA was a large amount of military equipment, including ships.By the end of the Korean War, Americans were forced to admit that the region has a new leader - China.Navy of the communist country's combat power is greatly inferior to the US Navy, based in Hawaii, but in the coastal area is dangerous.
fleet structure, adopted back in 1909, Soviet specialists was recognized as optimal.He was conditionally divided into three parts: North, South and East with the major ports based in Qingdao, Ningbo and Chzhantyane respectively.In these towns are placed by management and staff.In addition, the command of the fleet was selected (on the basis of the armed forces), albeit subject to the general management of the PLA.It was structured on the surface, underwater, and coastal areas of aviation.Chinese Navy ships were mainly Soviet-built, so knowledge of Russian naval officer to become mandatory.Imitation of Soviet military orders, and found expression in appearance.
form and straps
Soviet military uniforms of the postwar era, especially the sea, has some panache that can even be called old-regime.Gold epaulets, black jacket with epaulets and openings caused nostalgia for pre-revolutionary times and awakened pride in the glorious ancestors.Officer of the Navy insignia China inherited the pozdnestalinsky chic.In uniform, as in the Soviet, there are gaps, the older of the two officers, and the younger one.Location stars and their value is in conformity with the Navy rank of second lieutenant to Admiral.Some national identity is preserved for the younger grades.Military ranks of the Navy of China are different from Soviet and Russian because of the peculiarities of transcription, but the overall structure of the chain of command is preserved.
Form naval enlisted personnel of the Navy of China is almost completely repeats Russian.The same vest, but with wider top strip.His cap, too, are very similar, despite the hieroglyphic inscriptions.It is not known how buttoned pants: Russian sailors from the time of Peter traditionally sewn buttons on the sides, where on ordinary pants pockets.Most likely, the Chinese sailors such details are unknown as of the three stripes on the collar-jack.And they - after three victories of the Russian Navy (Gangut, Chesma, Sinop).
Chinese Navy is very neat, the shape of sitting on their good shoes polished, copper buckles kick.Just like our.Insignia slightly different form chevrons.
Activities Minister Comrade Lin Ben
Chinese sailors largely managed to avoid the destructive processes, during the "Cultural Revolution" sweeping the whole of China.Navy took part in the suppression of the rebellion in 1967, Wuhan, but that its role was limited to the Maoist crimes."Great Leap Forward" failed, and immediately after his final unsuccessful efforts Defense Minister Lin Ben began upgrading the base.About a fifth of the entire defense budget was spent on the fleet.During the seventh decade of the XX century, the number has grown to hundreds of submarines (in 1969 there were only 35), tenfold increase in the number of submarines (they became two hundred).The development of strategic nuclear submarines.
This was an important step in the development of Chinese naval power, but it is going on the extensive way.
Navy Commander Liu Huaqing, who held the post since 1980, was a close friend of Comrade Deng Xiaoping.He managed to persuade the de facto head of state that the general direction of the naval strategy should change somewhat in favor of upgrading the quality of the Chinese Navy.The composition of numerous warships apparently looked very impressive, but technically they could hardly compete with the US and the Soviet modern destroyers and missile cruisers.The educational level of marine commanders should increase.The focus of the doctrine had to promptly turn on the passive-shore activities in favor of open oceans.This calls for missiles launched from ships, the kind that have fleets of the Soviet Union and the United States.In 1982 he was made the first launch of an ICBM aboard a Chinese submarine.In 1984-1985, the Chinese Navy ships visited a friendly visit to the three neighboring countries.The successes are modest, but the progress was evident.
post-Soviet period in the last decade of the third millennium, the world has processes that change the overall balance of power.If during the time of Mao's China is expansive aspirations in relation to the USSR after its disintegration claims virtually glow faded.Among the many reasons for the decline of tension on the eastern borders of Russia is a major unprecedented economic growth in China, which has become a "world workshop".Glut of chemical companies that threaten to become a man-made bombs on densely populated cities, the ever-growing volume of production and other factors have led to a change in the military doctrine of the country.
On defense the Chinese government has continued to take care of, but the focus was already on the high-tech means capable of protecting the country, its economy and population against external threats.Besides remained a pressing problem of Taiwan and other disputed territories.
unfinished "Varyag" - aircraft carrier, unclaimed more than anyone, was cheaply purchased for the needs of the Chinese Navy.Today it has become the first and only aircraft carrier of the Navy of China.
Currently, the Navy of China represented by the following units:
Carriers - 1 ("Liaoning", former "Varyag", the largest Chinese ship - its displacement of about 60 thousand. Tons).
missile submarines - 1 ("Xia", project 092), in the completion or completed several (at least four) projects, "Jin" (094) and "Tang" (096).
multipurpose nuclear boat - 6 pieces.(Project "Kin", "Han" and "Shan").
diesel submarines - 68 pcs.
antisubmarine ships - 116 pcs.
missile destroyer -26 pc.
missile frigates - 49 pcs.
Missile boats - 85 pcs.
Torpedo boats - 9 pcs.
gunboat - 117 pcs.
tank landing ships - 68 pcs.
hovercraft - 10 pcs.
RC raid trawlers - 4 pcs.
large amphibious hovercraft "Bison" - 2 pcs.(Expectation can be blocked and 4).
Plus more than a thousand different types of aircraft, components of naval aviation.
total tonnage of ships of China exceeds 896 thousand. Tonnes.For comparison:
Russian fleet - 927 thous. Tons.
US Navy - 3 378 million. Tons.
the Government of the United States and Japan mainly expressed concern about the growing power of the Chinese Navy.Photos of ships lined up in the wake column, with frightening comments from time to time in the magazines are printed and published by news sites.But it is not these patterns are mostly outdated and inferior to the US, are the main bugbear.Very impressive figure indicating the number of Chinese seamen and military bases located on the shore.According to various sources, it is approximately equal to 350 thousand people.
Marines - 56.5 thousand.
As part of the Coastal Forces - 38 thousand.
in naval aviation another 34 thousand. Soldiers.
This, of course, a lot.American sailors much less - there are only 332 thousand.
Russian and Chinese - brothers forever?
modern world is such that the state, defending its interests, have to unite and "friendship against" someone who is also, as a rule, is not alone.Common positions regarding many of the world's problems helps military-political cooperation between Russia and China.Joint exercises of the Navy of Russia and China in the last year took place in two widely separated seas - the Mediterranean and Japan.This demonstration of readiness for mutual assistance and concerted action does not mean that in case of military conflict country will certainly support the other through direct intervention.If China wants to regain the island of Taiwan or to dismember the territory of Vietnam (which is also a strategic ally of Russia in the South-East Asia), it is unlikely to wait not only assistance but also sympathy from the "northern neighbor."Another thing - joint operations at sea against pirates and terrorists.But China - a country of peace-loving, like Russia.
Mediterranean naval maneuvers sailors visited China with a friendly visit of the Russian land.Chinese Navy ships in Novorossiysk saluted twenty one salvo, coastal batteries Tsemess Bay responded in kind.
Mariners both navies participated in the festive events dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the victory over German fascism.
The venue deputy commanders of the Russian Navy (A. Fedotenkova) and China (Du Jingcheng) became the 34th city waterfront pier.The ceremony, despite official differed geniality.Apparently, the maneuvers "Sea cooperation - 2015" were successful.This is probably not the last joint exercises of the Navy of Russia and China.