As strange as it sounds, but in today's world there are many paradoxes when you can find such thing as a "state within a state" and "nation within the country."The difference between them is quite significant.Now we try to see how the state within a state (country inside the other) can exist and be managed.
concept of enclaves and poluanklavov
To get started is to clearly define the basic concepts.As a rule, state or country, located in the territorial jurisdiction of other countries, called the enclaves (as long as that is the rule of state power in the country, we are not talking).From the point of view of the territorial dependence striking examples are countries like San Marino, surrounded on all sides by Italy and Lesotho - a country in South Africa completely surrounded.
In general, this concept comes from the Latin inclavare or from the French term enclave, which literally means "the lock with a key."
Poluanklavami referred to countries that have access to the sea, but on all the other sides are surrounded by other states.Among these can be called Portugal, Brunei and so. D.
On the other hand, if you approach the issue of local government, often some States may not be subject to the general laws of the countries in which they are located.Most often this is due to religious activities.However, even in that case the country in the country may have an official or unofficial status and even total or partial independence.
As for religion, there are two most striking examples.This Vatican (independent state) and Christians in the district capital of Denmark Copenhagen - Hristianskhavn - a semi-legal status.Sometimes it is known as: Free City of Christiania.
course, could be attributed to the enclaves and the Order of Malta, but in this case the distinction of status or self-government is very conditional, so that by the State of Malta can not be confused.It is rather a non-governmental organization, even without territorial jurisdiction.
Vatican, as is known, is an independent state within the country of Italy, more precisely, in its capital - the city of Rome.It is understood that the boundaries are virtually non-existent.Another thing is that the Vatican is limited access at certain times.
In terms of religion, the Vatican - the place of the Holy See of the Roman Catholic Church.This is the tiny state in the world is not subject to Italian law, although they have much in common.However, the Vatican has its own army, the police, and so on. D.
Now a few words about the Christians.This country is in the country and its independence, there are purely conventional, so to speak, in the form of semi-legal.
here believe that its laws and regulations, and the country, if you can call it that, is not officially recognized by Denmark.Another thing that is most similar to the exotic peck tourists.
What is most sad, in spite of some religious considerations, on the main street called Pusher Street is actively trade in soft drugs, but there are restrictions on photographing, hard drugs, flak jackets, guns and cars.In addition, it is prohibited theft.Agree, so his double-edged sword.
It would seem that the total could be between drugs and Christians?After all the canons of the Church clearly indicate the prohibition.Rather, it resembles not even a state, but a kind of society of individuals, cut off from reality and practicing freedom of the individual, as in the 60s of the last century did the hippies.
San Marino - the smallest country in the country recognized at the official level.With regard to the law, yes, they then own, but if you talk about boundaries, they are, as we have understood, not at all.According to the laws of the European Union is carried out inside the free movement without any passport control was.
lead this country two captains-regent elected for six months (from April 1 until October 1, and from 1 October until 1 April).Although they are heads of state, however, it has the parliament of 60 members, presented in the form of the Great and General Council.By the way, despite its small population, the country is in the country even has seven political parties, and supervision of compliance with the law of peer guarantees of constitutional norms.
Another striking example of a country entirely located in the territory of another state, you can call Lesotho.The country is surrounded by the territory of South Africa.
Despite this, there is a constitutional monarchy headed by a king.Such action was taken in 1993.As it is clear, in case of absence, illness or death of the monarch's state-controlled regent.But the king is more purely ceremonial face, rather than having the real power, which is concentrated in the hands of the prime minister, a bicameral parliament and the National Assembly, acting as the executive.
Conclusion We have presented only the most vivid examples of pure enclaves, which differ from each other on the principles of territorial jurisdiction, according to its own canons of construction of the political system, as well as the adoption and observance of constitutional norms.
course, states like Christiania can be called only by some convention, because in fact they are not recognized by any country in which they declared their independence, nor the world community.From the viewpoint of the scientific approach should clearly understand the existing differences between these enclaves and pseudo-that in the world there almost every year.