Russia's annual budget - income and expenses.

Execution of the state budget - a key component of economic governance in modern Russia.This process includes a lot of nuances.Does the Russian government to cope with the challenges of the market?How critical budget deficit and how to make a surplus?

What is the state budget

term "budget" comes from the English budget («wallet").It is designed in the form of a special budget comprehensive income country within a specified period of time (usually a year).The budget shows the origin of receipts to the state treasury and the cost structure is formed.On the one charged with these responsibilities?

Budget Government of Russia and approved by the Parliament.At the end of each financial year, the highest executive authority shall report on the execution of the state budget.Result disbursement may be different.Firstly, it may be scarce (expenses above income).Second, the performance of the main financial estimates of the state may be in surplus (when revenues, on the contrary, exceed the costs).And thirdly, there is a balanced budget (revenue and expenditure are virtually equal).

Revenue Structure

the basis of the revenue of the state budget of most countries - taxes (taxes, fees), the issue of currency and loans.The federal budget of Russia in 2012 had the following structure of revenue.The greatest income to the state brought premiums (17.51% of revenue, or nearly 4 trillion 102 billion rubles).The second largest item of revenue steel tariffs (17.49%, or about 4 trillion 100 billion rubles).Among the sources of revenue of the budget of classified third place a tax on the extraction of minerals (10.49% of revenue, or about $ 2 trillion 460 billion rubles).But it must be noted that, according to the statements of the government, 11.81% of the revenue budget - this "other income", it actually belongs to the third place in the structure of earnings.

These figures reflect the consolidated budget of Russia.It is divided into federal part of the regional budget and expense items that are related to public funds - the pension, insurance and health insurance.As such, the federal budget of Russia was formed in 2012 primarily due to customs duties.Insurance premiums have gone into state funds.

expenses structure

budget spending of related, as a rule, the implementation of social obligations, national defense, investments in infrastructure (new roads, communications and so on. D.), As well as debt service.Russia's budget for 2012 includes the following main items of expenditure.Firstly, these are the social obligations (3 trillion 185.8 billion rubles).The second largest section of budget spending was the national economy (1 trillion 712.2 billion rubles).In third place - national security (797.6 billion rubles).Quite a bit behind defense spending (783 billion rubles).Interestingly, the Russian budget expenditures include the so-called "sensitive articles", with a huge monetary value - $ 1 trillion 841.8 billion rubles in 2012.

budget and public debt

If the country's budget deficit, one of the main sources of replenishment are government loans.They can be internal (creditors are individuals and organizations who buy government bonds) or external, derived from foreign residents.The overall public debt includes the amount of principal and interest.Experts believe that the amount of public debt should be commensurate with the key macroeconomic indicators.

Among them - the amount of debt per capita, its ratio to GDP of the country and the volume of exports and government spending on debt service.Some economists believe it is important ratio of government debt and international reserves.Foreign creditors often assess creditworthiness of the countries on the basis of all these indicators.

why the budget deficit can be

the Government for the period 2014-2016 years laid the budget deficit Russia.According to some experts, this is due to the fact that the economy is in transition, and at this stage it has no opportunity to answer the challenges of the market.As a result, the government was forced to allow the excess of expenditure over revenue side of the budget and begin to practice borrowing.

The main problem, analysts say - insufficient development of non-extractive sectors of the Russian economy, low dynamics of innovation and job creation in areas where there are new technologies.At the same time, experts note, the problem related to the improvement of the quality of social services, the government is not put.Despite the relevance of this line of budget spending.

Factors budget surplus

Despite the fact that Russia's budget in 2014 is planned with a deficit, the Government of the Russian Federation does not exclude the possibility that part of the expenditure would be still less profitable.The major reasons for this is called a two - favorable exchange rate to the leading world currencies (income, which has a budget of Russia in US dollars, increased in ruble terms), as well as the relatively high prices for oil.Among other factors, experts have called a comfortable export prices of Russian producers.Thanks to the good market conditions, the budget can be adjusted in the fall.However, as analysts note, changes may relate to the transition probabilities and borrowing - as in the situation with a deficit.While in the annual budget of the Government of Russia has laid a deficit of 0.5% of GDP.Interestingly, the International Monetary Fund is optimistic: according to international economists, the budget of the Russian Federation will be executed with a surplus of 0.3% of GDP.

allegedly Russian budget

annual budget of Russia is formed in several stages.First, it works with government, carrying out calculations of income and expense, justifying the formulation and analysis of the economic situation.It constitutes the entire structure of the Russian budget.Then the project is brought to the State Duma for consideration.In the next step the Duma deputies sent a document to the committee dealing with the budget, tax, banking and financial policies.

There are documents provided by the Government, studied officials, experts, economists, financiers, scientists.Then the project is shown to the President of Russia, is sent to the other committees of the State Duma, and finally enters the Chamber of Accounts, which concludes.This procedure includes checking the draft budget for the rule of law, the reasonableness of revenue and expenditure sides.Thereafter, the State Duma proceeds to the budget-making process in the four readings.If this stage is successful, the approved document is sent to the Federation Council.If there is a budget is adopted, the draft goes to the President of Russia.

dynamics of budget expenditures Russian

Income and expense items especially the Russian budget - vacillates.Values ​​first may fluctuate due to market conditions, the quality of the fiscal authorities and financial institutions.Second - adjusted each year by the Government, depending on the purpose, which it considers a priority.A striking example - under "national economy".In 2009, their value was about $ 1 trillion 63 billion rubles, in 2010 the figure rose to 303 billion, a year later increased by another 336.

example of budget expenditure, the dynamics of which is ambiguous - "national defense".In 2009, the state spent to finance this sphere about 712 billion rubles a year - significantly less 678. But in 2011 there was a sharp increase in cash flow on defense - 793 billion rubles from the state budget.In 2012, the figure again dropped to 783. At the same time, the total federal budget of Russia from 2009 to 2012 has been steadily growing.

Budget Execution Russia

After all the legislative procedures of the State Budget of Russia begins to run.The main problem here, according to analysts - to ensure timely payment of taxes and control the quality of the transfer of funds to the recipients.In the area of ​​responsibility of the Government of the Russian Federation - revenues and expenditures of Russia at the federal level.For development tools in the subjects of responsible executive authorities of the regions.Local administration municipalities enforce the requirements of the main financial document of the country in the cities, counties and districts.

happens that the Russian budget in the year of crisis or recession in the global economy may be subjected to sequestration.Most often it is due to the deterioration of the situation of energy markets.The specifics of this industry is that fuel prices forecast, as experts note, it is difficult.Sequestration budget is usually associated with a reduction of expenditure in equal proportions (but there may be so-called "protected" areas of funding).

Fiscal Policy in Russia in the coming years

in June 2013 in one of the messages of the President of our country marked the new vectors of state fiscal policy.Firstly, the President noted that the situation in Russia and the world economy is creating new challenges.Second, Vladimir Putin made it clear that the model of economic development of the Russian Federation, based on high oil prices, has exhausted the resources for further dynamic growth (as it was, for example, in 2000-2008).Export volumes are rising slowly, the balance of trade in 2012 hardly changed, and in relation to GDP decreased at all.

Vladimir Putin outlined the period of the planned restructuring of the budget policy - 2014-2016.He set the task to develop options for attracting alternative sources of income, if the deficit is to increase unexpectedly.The President also noted that the need to amend the laws that will establish the order of generating long-term, strategic forecasts for the Russian economy and alignment of fiscal policy.