Gerald Ford: internal and external policies (briefly), biography, photos

studying the history of the United States, any attentive reader will notice that the least explored is the presidency of Gerald Ford.But after World War II, this time in the life of the mighty powers was perhaps the most tragic.

characteristic time interval under President Ford

In fact, the increase in crime and the economic crisis have increased the tensions in society.Increased the number of citizens are losing confidence in the authorities and disappointed in the American society.The Vietnam War and its completion, infamous for the US State exacerbates the situation.

Despite this, President Ford was able, thanks to the calm and balanced character, to restore public confidence in the presidency and strengthen the hope for a better future.During his presidency, in 1975, he was made a joint Soviet-American flight of the program "Soyuz-Apollo" with docking spacecraft.Preparation for the event began under Nixon.In addition, at the same time in the United States celebrated the 200th anniversary of the American Declaration of Independence.

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Nevertheless, it was not enough to raise the prestige of the Republican Party, undermined Watergate that has not allowed Gerald Ford to become president for a second term.

Gerald Ford: Biography of childhood and adolescence

Gerald Rudolph Ford, the thirty-eighth President of the United States, who served from 1973 to 1976, was born July 14, 1913.This event took place in Omaha, Nebraska.The boy's name was Leslie Lynch King.After a short time, the family split up.The mother of the future head of the Oval Office, Dorothy King married a second time.This time it was the chosen one trader Gerald Rudolph Ford, originally from her hometown of Grand Springs.Thus, Leslie Lynch King once turned, thanks to her stepfather, Gerald Rudolph Ford in.

As a child, young Gerald was a scout in the organization's hierarchy, he reached up to the top and got the highest rank, Eagle Scout.The school team football teenager and then a young man was a captain.Sport football, he did not give up and in the period of study at the University of Michigan.

completed training in this alma mater in 1935, the young man continued his education at Yale Law School.Graduation - 1941.

biography of Gerald Ford before his arrival in politics

After the US entry into World War II, Gerald Ford came to the special courses, where the military was preparing a military instructor.

In 1943, Ford instructors career ended, and until 1946, he carried on an aircraft carrier service "Monterey".This ship, while in the Pacific, has participated in several military operations against the Japanese Imperial Navy.

Outside the reserve, Gerald Ford returned to his city of Palm Srings, where he began working as a practicing lawyer.Then he decided that he will be engaged in politics.

participation in the political life of the country in the period before the arrival of the Oval Office has come

1948.Ford's candidacy nominated by the Republican Party in the House of Representatives of the US Congress.With the victory in these elections, and began his career in politics.Ford was repeatedly elected to the post for many years, until 1973.

deliberated in the House of Representatives, a politician involved in the investigation of the sensational murder of President Kennedy in 1963.The Warren Commission was engaged in business, and Ford was an active member of it.However, special laurels, this work has not brought, because the results of the investigation, the results reported to the authorities by the Commission and the US public, hitherto subjected to sharp criticism.

To complete the characteristics of the Ford-politician said that he opposed the escalation of the Vietnam War by the United States, was a supporter and friend of President Nixon.

coming out on top

power in 1973, resulting in a tax scandal, was forced to resign Spiro Agnew, who was then vice-president.Using the appropriate constitutional amendment, President Nixon appointed Gerald Ford's successor Agnew.

year later broke the infamous Watergate scandal, Nixon threatened impeachment.This led to the voluntary early retirement of the White House.So, without elections and conventions, Vice President Gerald Ford, according to the constitution, became the president of the United States, officially taking the post in 1974, August 9.Before continuing our story would be appropriate to illustrate it.So, get acquainted: Gerald Ford (photo below).

Foreign Policy

With regard to this area of ​​work, it can be argued that President Gerald Ford left its mark in the international history.Continuing the policy of détente initiated by former President Nixon, Ford paid a visit to the Soviet Union, continued in 1971 initiated the normalization of relations with communist China, ended the Vietnam War.

However, there were also negative aspects.So, bypassing Congress, as directed by President Ford conducted a special operation in Cambodia.Delayed Cambodian warships US merchant ship and its crew of 39 sailors returned home unharmed, but the US Marines were killed (41 people), was bombed from the air Cambodian city of Sihanoukville.In 1975, again without the knowledge of Congress, Ford authorized the aid anti-government forces in the civil war in Angola.The foreign policy of Gerald Ford, among others, had two important areas that deserve special attention.It - détente and Vietnam.Next, let's talk about this in more detail.

détente

In 1975, President Ford made a visit to the USSR, where in Vladivostok met with General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee LI Brezhnev discussed at this meeting and the state of relations between the USSR - the United States, and international problemsand ways to reduce the threat of global nuclear war.Within the last problem solved issues limiting strategic offensive arms.

Then Ford signed the Helsinki Accords on Security and Cooperation.

However, even in this field, Democrats congressmen to counter the efforts of the president.Congress passed the Jackson-Vanik amendment to the agreement on trade between the USSR and the USA from 1972, tied to the performance of this contract situation with civil rights in the Soviet Union.

Vietnam

special page of American history is the participation of States in the Vietnam War, or as it was called progressive politicians and journalists, Vietnam adventure USA.Without going into all the vicissitudes and circumstances of this painful campaign for American society, just to say that during the years of Ford it was already known that the reason for the beginning of the bombing of North Vietnam, t. N.Tonkin incident was a forgery concocted by US intelligence agencies.Virtually the whole world morally and financially supported the struggle of the Vietnamese people for independence and reunification of the country.In 1975, the troops of North Vietnam Saigon was taken by storm - the capital of South Vietnam, at the presidential palace hoisted the banner of victory.

Americans evacuated its embassy and those Vietnamese who could not stay in the liberated country.

However, direct involvement of US troops in combat operations ended earlier, in 1973, with the signing of a peace treaty in Paris.

Impact of War on American society was so strong that the US abolished conscription and proceeded to contract army.It began more reform under President Nixon.Last recruit retired from the US Army in 1974.

In general, as a society, and power in this war were amazed t. N.Vietnam syndrome.That is, society and state the reasons carefully avoided being drawn into the same war.The implications of this for a long time influenced the foreign policy of US President and Congress.

At the same time came to prominence of the US administration in previous periods to mislead public opinion, both in the international arena as well as in America.

Domestic Policy

In this area a number of actions the president has caused growing discontent of citizens.So, in 1974, September 8, Ford issued a decree pardoned his predecessor for everything, as became known, and the remaining undetected, offenses against the country, committed by Richard Nixon as president of the United States.

a result of this amnesty, although it is consistent with constitutional norms, President Gerald Ford did not work out the relationship with the Congress.In addition, there was a majority for the Democrats.

So, Congress refused to cut spending on social needs.Ford himself during the years of his rule, imposed a veto on 50 different bills.In turn, the Congress did not agree with the president and approved them again.Ford was defeated and the issue of allowances for income taxes.The President was essentially conservative, whereas Congressmen - in the majority - liberals.And, contrary to the position of the White House, these prices got people with low income.Thus, domestic policies Gerald Ford could not be effective in a constant struggle with Congress.

Economy

the time of entry in the Gerald R. Ford Presidential office and during his reign the United States is in a deep economic crisis: inflation and unemployment steadily increased, production is in decline.The authorities were forced to significantly reduce government spending.The financing of any program, not connected in one way or another with the needs of the Pentagon, in fact stopped.

End of political career and care of life

Despite a number of achievements and efforts, all the efforts that are making Gerald Ford, internal and external policies, summarized in this article did not enjoy wide popularity in American society.Measures to reduce inflation were carried out urgently, but it has caused a rise in unemployment to 12%, started the biggest decline of the US economy since the Great Depression of 1929-1933.In 1974, the permanent opponents Republicans - Democrats - won the midterm elections in both houses of Congress.Behind them came the turn of triumph in the race for the presidency.The next - the thirty-ninth - the president of the United States became the candidate of the Democratic Party.

Gerald Ford lost the presidential election candidate from a rival party, Jimmy Carter, he left the Oval Office for a long time and worked at the American Enterprise Institute.

During his stay at the highest post of the power structure of the United States, Ford has gone through two failed attempts on his life.Becoming an ex-president, he actually left the big politics.

In 2006, December 26, former US President Gerald Ford, domestic and foreign policy is already beginning to be forgotten, he died, leaving behind four children.And of course, it is an imprint on the history of the world.