Malvinas Islands - a small archipelago located in the South Atlantic Ocean.It consists of 2 large and many small pieces of land, the number of which is approximately equal to 776. The combined area of all plots is 12 thousand. Km2.Falklands - the second and more common name, which is called the Malvinas Islands.The coordinates of the location of the archipelago - 51,75 ° S.w.59 ° W.d. The history of this little corner of paradise marred by the struggle between the two states that are trying to secure the area behind him.
History of origin of the conflict
XVI century was marked by the discovery of many previously unexplored territories.Malvinas Islands are no exception.The dispute over their discoverer and lasts until now.Argentina insists that the first European to set foot on the leg portion of the land was the Spanish sailor Esteban Gomez, and it happened in 1520.But Britain says that it was discovered only in 1592 by John Briton Dejvice.History tells us that more than 200 years, the archipelago was located a Spanish garrison.That is the Malvinas Islands were part of Spain.But in 1810, Argentina declared its independence, and war sailed from these lands home.Such active events in Argentina have led to the fact that about Falkland archipelago is simply forgotten.Only ten years later the captain Dzhyuetom with a detachment of paratroopers arrived and declared the rights of their state to the territory.
This distribution of power lasted 12 years.But the British naval expedition arrived on the island and produced a revolution, subordinating Malvinas UK.Argentina at that time was still a young state and to put failed to repel the invaders.But the resignation and transfer a portion of their land another country, it is not going to.Thus, the conflict over the Malvinas Islands has arisen due to the seizure of foreign territory by England.
period of finding a peaceful solution
As you know, the UK was one of the greatest colonial countries in the world.But in the 60 years of the twentieth century, the system crashed.Argentina, taking advantage of the situation and tried to regain power over the Falklands through diplomacy.So, in this period there was an airfield on the island and telephone.The majority of UN member states supported this initiative.But England did not want to give any territory under what conditions.After all, it was not only the piece of land, which is located quite far from the main part of the state.The British were interested in deposits of natural resources such as gas and oil.Another factor was that Britain was virtually a monopoly in catching marine crustacean - krill, and share with someone she was not going.
then in power in the UK was all known Iron Lady Margaret Thatcher.Started a war against Argentina, it has strengthened its position in power.Malvinas (Falkland) Islands have a separate entry in its return policy in England as a great state.
military benefits Argentina
Dispute England with Argentina over the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) it was beneficial not only to the first of them.In 1981, Argentina experienced a military coup and seized power the dictator Leopoldo Galteri.He just had to win the support of ordinary people, and victory in a quick little war was to fulfill its destiny.After all, if returned to the Malvinas Islands, Argentina would show the world that it is a strong and independent state.
beginning of the war
General Galteri began carefully preparing an operation for the return of the archipelago.It was decided to call in honor of Captain Dzhyueta - "Rosario."The beginning was to be 25 May 1982.This date was chosen because on that day, Argentina celebrated their national holiday, which later had to proclaim as the Day of the Malvinas Islands.But Argentines crept into the ranks of the traitor and British intelligence received all the information about the plan.The answer to such action by the British submarine was "Spartan", which was sent to patrol the waters of the South Atlantic.When I heard about it, he suffered Galteri beginning April 2, 1982 and on that day the Argentine troops landed on Malvinas and easily coped with a small group of British.
England took a tough stance, as it is believed to have been affected by its national interests.And she was waiting for the support of all the countries of the European continent.Latin America, on the other hand, was on the side of Argentina, after the Malvinas (Falkland) Islands, in their opinion, it has long been time to recognize the power of their present homeland.But France did not take a clear position in this conflict, because it was not profitable to turn away from Argentina.This country buys from French warplanes.In addition, the Republic of Peru as an ally of Argentina bought the French anti-ship missiles.
view of the war the US and USSR
In this war, the Soviet Union was ready to support their military equipment to Argentina for a reduction in prices for food products.But while the Soviet Union itself was in a state of unresolved armed conflict (the war in Afghanistan).Therefore, all the support that had Argentina, expressed in long speeches at meetings of the United Nations.About the activity we did not even sign.Even reverse happened: the Soviet Union simply washed his hands and completely withdrew from the Anglo-Argentine conflict.
United States, by contrast, have not moved in strontium.While the US president was Ronald Reagan, who, after persuasion Defense Minister K. Weinberg fully supported the UK.US immediately imposed sanctions against Argentina.And the UN Security Council the United States, along with Britain vetoed a resolution on the Falklands conflict.These two states have agreed even on the possibility of putting pressure on the Soviet Union, if he decides to intervene.
After seizing control of the archipelago Britain immediately sent a large naval units to the area was restored under the authority of the British Crown.On 12 April 1982 the British government took to blockade the Malvinas Islands.The war was already in full swing.British Defense Secretary said that if the Argentine ships will be seen within 200 miles of this area, they will be immediately drowned.RESPONSE Argentina was a ban on the use of the services of the British bank for its citizens.
Aviation Argentina and could not actively participate in hostilities, especially in the maintenance of the garrison and supply it with all necessary.This happened due to the fact that the jet combat aircraft could not sit on the runway that existed on the island, as it was too short.
With the support of the United States, Britain had the opportunity to use their military base on Ascension Island.It facilitates access to remote areas.April 25 the British seized the island of South Georgia, who formerly was ruled Argentina.Military surrendered and gave his post without a fight.Then began a new phase of the war.
Phase sea and air operations
On May 1, 1982 the area was completely covered the Falklands War.British aircraft carried out a raid on Port Stanley and Argentina in response sent aircraft to attack British ships.The next day, an event that was the most difficult for Argentina during the war.The submarine sank the British cruiser of the enemy, because of the deaths of 323 people.This was the reason that the Argentine Navy withdrew back to the shores of his native country.More participation in hostilities, he did not accept.
Argentina found itself in a quandary, and she could only hope to aviation.This threw off the British fleet in the outdated free-falling bombs, which in most cases is not even broken.
But the British side had losses, which shocked the whole country.May 4 antiship missile, delivered from France, heavily grazed one of British destroyers.This was the cause of his flooding.But such missiles at that time, Argentina had only five, which led to the rapid depletion of the stock.
Calm before the storm
such military breakthrough in Argentina led to two weeks of relative calm.Of course, clashes continued, but they were few.These include the UK military operation to destroy the 11 Argentine aircraft on Pebble Island.At the same time, the UN was trying to persuade the parties to end the war and negotiate peacefully.But no one wanted to give up.Argentina, in turn, decided to respond to sanctions in other countries against it.It is forbidden to fly its citizens in countries that have adopted antiargentinskie sanctions.
England were preparing their Marines to land on the islands.It happened on the night of 21 to 22 of May.The landing took place in the bay of San Carlos, where this was not expected at all.Resistance Argentines were poor, but the next morning the situation changed.Argentine Air Force raided the ships that were moored in the bay.
May 25 one of the planes shot down a British ship, which was carrying helicopters.A few days later it sank.A detachment of British land has already taken strong positions on the island.May 28 in the area of the settlements Goose nrnam Darwin was attacked by Argentine garrison, leaving after a very hard battle, he was forced to retreat.
June 12 with heavy losses the British troops occupied the heights previously controlled Argentines Tu-Sisters, Mount Harriet, and Moonies, Longdon.June 14, and the rest were subject to the height of the troops in England.
British troops have also blockaded the Argentine city of Port Stanley.Command realized that to help them no one would come, so on June 14, they gave up and surrendered.The Falkland Islands were again returned to the control of the United Kingdom.The official date of the end of the war is considered to be on 20 June.On this day, the British occupied the South Sandwich Islands.
Britain for some time did not let 600 Argentines from captivity in an attempt to manipulate their homeland to sign a more favorable peace treaty.
sides during the 74-day military conflict Argentina lost 649 people, one cruiser, a submarine, a gunboat, four transport ships, a fishing trawler, 22 attack aircraft, 11 fighters, about 100 planes and helicopters.The prisoner was taken 11 thousand. Man.In addition, the resonance was the fact that after the war has killed 3 soldiers, captured Britain.
United Kingdom in this war lost 258 people, two frigates, two destroyers, one container, one landing ship, a landing craft, helicopters and 34 aircraft.
The current stage of the conflict
After the war, honey warring countries never signed a formal contract.Only a 90-year diplomatic relations were re-established.In recent years, the conflict gained momentum again.The reason for this was the acquisition of a British company a permit for oil around the Malvinas Islands.Argentina opposed this state of affairs, because the production of oil will actually be off the coast of the state.
response of Argentina was also the law of 16 February 2010, which states that to swim a distance of 500 km from the coast of the country have the right to only those ships that have received the permission.But that did not stop the British, and the platform for oil production was established on 21 February.
In 2013, the public has once again drawn attention to the Malvinas Islands.The referendum, which would determine the membership of the country, was to be held March 10 and 11.Residents have the opportunity themselves choose which state they would like to be treated.When the results were tallied, it turned out that the elections come 91% of the inhabitants of the islands.With the undeniable result of 99.8% in Great Britain won, leaving no chance for Argentina's objections.
Thus, in the last century there was a brief war over the Falkland Islands, or Malvinas islands.Shantarsky islands in the Sea of Okhotsk, something reminiscent of the archipelago.It's also a small piece of territory of the continental margin.But if the two countries decide to fight for it, many people will die.History of the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) proves that wins the fight more informed, purposeful and well-planned actions of the opponent.
history occurred earlier wars did not know such as this.It is a unique phenomenon.Although she was very short, opponents waged a fierce battle, applying for this all the latest technological process.For the UK it was also a war at a great distance.The main objective was not the territory itself, and the resources that it could give the country of the winner.