The ship "Eagle" - the first Russian frigate

In 1636 in Russia was built warship named "Frederick," but he belonged to another state - Schleswig-Holstein (land in the north of Germany, the capital - Kiel).Therefore, the ship "Eagle", built in 1667-1669, respectively, considered the first-born of Russian military shipbuilding.

reasons for the construction of the first shipyard

Background to its construction follows.Under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, who ruled Rus' from 1645 to 1676, intensively developed trade relations with its neighbors, including Persia (modern Iran).There was a need for navigation on the Caspian Sea.The times were turbulent, and signed by the Russian tsar and the Shah of Persia special trade agreement stipulated the need to protect the point of trade routes by military courts.The ship "Eagle" is the result of this agreement.


In 1667, on the Oka River just below the confluence of the Moskva River, in the village called Dedinovo started construction of a small shipyard.It was intended for the construction of a

ship, boat, yacht, and two boats.That was the original plan.For this purpose they have been discharged from the Netherlands and other countries ship Goldsmiths - Geltow, Minster and Van den Streck.Also they have been invited to direct the management and organization of the construction of warships, Colonel Van Bukovec, the captain and kormschik Butler.From the surrounding villages gathered 30 carpenters, blacksmith and 4 4 Pushkar.Overall, the management process of the birth of Russia's navy was tasked Boyar AL-Ordyn Nashchokin, one of the most educated and intelligent royal dignitaries.He also belonged to the idea of ​​furnishing private Russian Navy.

seriousness of intentions

Obviously, in view of such a serious state approach the ship "Eagle" was built in a remarkably short time - less than a year.We started to build its November 14, 1667, and already 19 May 1668 it was launched.What is it?Double-deck, three-masted sailing ship with bowsprit Western European type was a kind of Dutch Pinas - sailing and rowing multi-purpose vessel.Parameters that had the ship "Eagle", are as follows: length of the vessel is equal to 24.5 meters, width of 6.5 meters, the depth of rainfall reached 1.5 meters.Money for the construction of a sailboat were obtained by precursor Admiralty Peter I - the Order of the Greater Parish.The total cost amounted to 2221 rubles.The frigate was built by Russian shipbuilders Stepan Petrov and Yakov Poluektovym project aforesaid Cornelius van Beech.Warship "Eagle" had the following weapons - 22 food (gun) caliber six to two feet, 40 muskets, 40 pistols, hand grenades.The crew was to consist of 56 people - the captain, 22 sailors (according to other sources, 20 seamen and 2 officers), 35 archers.

cradle of the Russian Navy

It should be noted that the location for the construction of the shipyard was chosen sensibly.Dedinovo village stretches along both banks of the Oka River.Here are oak forests, is an excellent building material.The squadron of frigates, two sloops and yachts on the Volga in 1669, arrived in Astrakhan.The yacht was armed with two six-foot guns, each sloop was one squeaking of the same caliber.Why only in 1669 the convoy got to Astrakhan?The delay was due to lack of materials, and the warship "Eagle" was forced to spend the winter on the Oka River.The emergence of the shipyard has marked not only the birth of the national navy, but also facilitated the emergence of the ship's charter and Russian flag merchant marine."Article 34 Article" received before sailing fleet of four ships led Galiota "Eagle" became the prototype of the Charter of the CPA.Tricolor, according to some reports, too, was invented here for the launching of "Eagle", although, according to other sources, Peter I personally drew it invented colors, order and direction of the bands.The first ship "Eagle" was named in honor of the Russian coat of arms.April 25, 1669 issued a decree on awarding a ship of that name.

sad end in August and the month of the frigate commanded by Captain Butler and other vessels anchored at the Astrakhan raid.The city has already been captured by the rebellious peasants led by Stepan Razin.According to some reports, the ships were burned Razinsky Cossacks, on the other, the first ship "Eagle" has defended many years of inaction in the channel Kutum until until he came into complete disrepair.Such a fate suffered by the frigate.He was not destined to accompany merchant vessels in Persia, crossing Khvalynskoe (Caspian) sea.But he will always be the first Russian warship.Peter I repeatedly visited the first Russian shipyard and noted that the first frigate, though not carried out his mission, but it was from him went all the seamanship.It is said that a ship on the spire of the Admiralty outlines very similar to the glorious Russian ship "Eagle".