Andean countries - is the state of the Andean Community.It was formed in 1969 by six countries: Bolivia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, Colombia and Chile.
Currently, this group acts as a customs union.Was introduced a common customs tariff, common commercial policy is carried out in relation to other states.
geological structure and minerals
Andes - the greatest mountain range in the world.The length of the mountain belt is 9000 km in height, they are second only to the Himalayas.20 mountain peaks exceed a height of 6 km and the highest point - Mount Aconcagua - reaches 6960 m. The Andes Mountains are located on the edge of the lithospheric plates - South American, joined the fold of rocks, squeezed out of the mantle at podpolzanii Nazca oceanic plate under the plate of the continent.
mountain ranges, parallel rows contouring the coast, are a chain of volcanoes.Volcanoes of South America - the current, they periodically wake up and pour out lava that fills the intermountain troughs and valleys, forming high altitude lava plateaus.
Minerals this part of the continent confined to the intermountain troughs and hollows foothill of the Andes.Andean countries stand out because they have large reserves of rare minerals.Here are mined minerals such as copper, zinc, lead, molybdenum, tin and others.
considering the geological structure, we can say what minerals are of Andean countries.Resources of Latin America is very diverse.In the mountains there are such natural wealth as gypsum veins of coal, salt, mercury, gold, platinum and silver.All the Andean countries boast ample supply of precious and semiprecious stones, such as amethyst, topaz, agate and others.
Andes - it is a huge mountain range, part of which differ from each other.For the convenience of the Andes study were divided into four physiographic countries that combined a number of features.
Andean countries of Latin America - the warm southern states, but the climate is a bit different from each other.
on the territory of these mountains are: part of Ecuador, Venezuela and Colombia.This physiographic countries include: Caribbean Andes, Andes of Ecuador and Northwest Andes.
climate is equatorial and sub-equatorial.The rainfall on the Pacific coast up to 8000 mm per year, rainfall in the interior of smaller, but droughts do not happen.The east side of the moisture is reduced to the lower parts of the mountain slopes grow only letnezelenye woodlands, but at an altitude of 1000 m above the wet start gilei.
on the inner slopes of the rainfall is less, so there are only letnezelenye or hard-leaved forests.
Conventionally, they are divided into the Bolivian and Peruvian Andes, asin these countries are located in this part of the mountain range.
Central Andes differ quite dry climate.The driest part - Bolivian Andes.Rainfall is less than 300 mm per year.But since the height of 3500 m above sea level, precipitation increases, so there are potatoes, barley and other cereals.All major cities are also at that altitude.
The average temperature throughout the year is + 20-23 ° C.In the summer in this part of the Andes quite warm, 18 ° C, the winter temperature is + 15 ° C.On the Pacific coast the temperature is lower.
is almost entirely located in Chile.In the northern part of the mountain is very little rainfall - 10 mm.Here is the Atacama Desert.
south from the desert rainfall increases to 1,500 mm per year.
The average temperature in January is 22 ° C, in July - from 12 ° C to + 18 ° C.
In parts where precipitation allows you to grow rain forests of the temperate zone.With decreasing rainfall appear hard-leaved forests, shrub vegetation, which turns into a desert.
This part of the mountain range of the lowest and fragmented.On their western slopes falls about 5000 mm of rainfall a year, and summer and winter temperatures is + 15 ° C.
On the western slopes of rainfall decreases to 1500 mm and the annual average temperature increases to + 20 ° C - 24 ° C.
All Andean share a common history.Even before the development of these land colonizers from Western Europe to the inhabitants of the mountains - the Indians - have developed their own culture and economy.The ancient state in the territory of the Andes was strong in economic and social terms.It was developed not only to agriculture and livestock, but there was mining of various minerals.All of it was destroyed with the arrival of the conquerors of Britain, France and Portugal.
colonies brought the first large enough income countries.Economic development was going in one direction.But after the liberation from colonial dependence of the Andean countries went their separate ways so the modern economy of Latin American countries is very different.
To improve their situation, the Andean formed an alliance - the Andean Community.So they wanted to expand the national markets, which were scattered.The result has been introduced a common customs tariff, there was a general industrial planning, and the least economically developed countries - Bolivia and Ecuador - have been provided with various benefits.
One of the main features of the AU - is the creation of an institutional structure where limited supranational functions.Model of the Andean Community is similar to the model of the European Union, with only minor differences.
AC consists of three main bodies:
- Presidential Council.Here is the definition of integration policies in the interests of the sub-region.Assess results.
- The Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs.It performs various functions related to foreign affairs.Basically it is the coordination group participation in various international negotiations and organizations.
- General Secretariat.This executive body, which is headed by the Secretary-General, elected by the Council of Ministers.
Other subsidiary bodies: the Andean Parliament, the Andean Court of Justice, General Secretariat, and others.
Andean countries in South America - is the European Union in Europe.