Despite its outstanding service, a machine gun, "Hotchkiss" never stayed at a constant arsenal of at least one army in the world, because in addition to the relative simplicity of the device, it has no outstanding qualities.It is used extensively in the war and in the postwar period, when he was briefly involved in England and the Indian colonies, which had previously been dominated by France, and today was completely forgotten in the world.
testing the first sample
Based on developing a framework machine gun, managed to construct a new model of weapon - a machine gun, "Hotchkiss", which already in 1909 was presented to the world market at once in 7 and 10 kg version.Heavier sample was equipped with not only the trunk, which required the replacement of the minimum amount of time that was very important in combat, but the radiator, which immediately interested in the gun department Artkoma SAU, who decided to test a new weapon in the rifle range.
Despite the fact that during use were seen repeated failure of the receiver system, the weapons department decided to continue testing, and made a new order for a small batch of guns.This decision was directly related to the fact that most foreign countries, along with the massive machine guns, were armed with more and "guns-guns", became widespread because of its power and relatively compact, countered that there was nothing, and manual -gun "Hotchkiss" could be a good alternative.
in service with the Air Force
in 1912 by the manufacturer introduced a new modification of the machine gun, designed for installation on military aircraft.The device had a characteristic difference from the original sample.Machine Gun "Gochkins" get along butt pistol grip, which is added to the special system of sight and swivel unit, greatly simplifies the use in case of alarm.Infantry Officer's school received the first copies of the advanced weapons in June 1914, directly from the manufacturer.
contribution in the First World
Despite the fact that the first model did not enjoy significant popularity, gun systems, "Hotchkiss" became a high demand before the First World War.
countries committed to his adopted:
- France - 1909. Organized system allows to produce more than 700 units per month.The most popular model was the machine gun of the French "Hotchkiss" of 1922, the weight of which all subsequent modifications did not exceed 9.6 kg.Universal design allows shooting at a rate of 450 rounds per minute, which was a very significant figure at the time.This model is advantageous to quench the flame featured system that had not been used, and has been fitted directly on the trunk.
- UK - Mark I «Hotchkiss" 303. In 1915, it was established permanent production.
- US - "Bene Mercier" 30 M1909.It should be noted that for the period until 1916 in the US Army was no more than 679 such models.
Regardless of the country of its manufacturer supplying system of folding bipod, ring on the barrel with pins to gun it was much easier to install on a light tripod by placing it under the back support for greater stability.Despite the fact that in countries such as Spain, Norway, Greece and Brazil, and has not been arranged production data tools, stable supply helped to completely fix the problem of lack of arms.
device guns "Hotchkiss"
Despite the modifications, "Hotchkiss" has retained much of its original device, receiving a significant strengthening of weaknesses.The regulator of the gas chamber as the piston is unscrewed was installed in front of the camera and operated by measuring the volume, dropping the gas as soon as it reaches a critical indicator.Propellant gases removal system has been designed in such a way that they are moving away from the cylinder, passing through a long stroke gas piston, equipped with a pipe, and disposed of through the transverse hole at the bottom of the barrel, without causing the arrow any inconvenience.
handle used to recharge the gun at the same time playing the role of a fuse.The automation system, thanks to its mobility, had a stroke of up to 106 mm.Gun owner could, turning it, to determine for themselves which mode to use the machine gun:
- S - fuse.
- R - single fire.
- A - continuous fire.
In addition, a machine gun, "Hotchkiss" got Slight cutting gate and part of the trunk, which served as the main factor of change between these elements of the fastening tools.For this purpose, the clutch was engaged, equipped with a variety of domestic sectors that are turning on the trunk as a result of the impact of the piston rod, fix inside the gun.
Charge the gun had to be tough tape.This should take into account that if its release was carried out in the UK, the amount of ammunition was 30 pc., And if in France, only 24 pieces.When shooting letka turned due to a finger lever mounted in a mobile system.
is noteworthy that the system of charging for each modification was individually gun "Hotchkiss" in 1914 charged yet flexible metal tape with hard links, each of which are located on the three rounds.In use, observed one negative factor, despite the fact that the weight of the tape was a lot easier than in the store, it was not very reliable, and charge it at night becomes a very difficult task.On the butt, made of wood, made pistol ledge and stop for the shoulder.In addition, if necessary, can be positioned in it, even the butter dish, for which there was a special department.
pre-war years and World War II
Before the start of World War II, heavy machine gun, "Hotchkiss" 13.2 mm, released in France again began to gain popularity.This was mainly due to the fact that the design provides not only the firepower, but also the speed of fire, taking into account the high initial velocity bullets.
gun mechanism is made by the type of drummer - is directly related to the fact that its trigger mechanism, assembled in the back plate, provides maintenance of automatic fire only.The only drawback of this model was that it was required to charge the stores, the amount of which does not exceed 15 rounds.This advantage has become the technology of protection against overheating, which is a rib formed along the entire length of the barrel.
Today, this model machine gun undeservedly forgotten, though it was with the help of the Germans managed to stay so long in the occupied positions, holding the Soviet forces its firepower.