«artillery - the god of war" - once advocated Stalin, speaking about one of the most important branches of service.With these words, he tried to emphasize the great importance that had these weapons during the Second World War.And this expression is true, as the merits of the artillery can not be overestimated.Its power allowed Soviet troops mercilessly crush the enemies and zoom in such a coveted Great Victory.
rest of this article will be considered by the artillery of the Second World, which was then in service with the Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, starting with light anti-tank guns and ending superheavy guns, monsters.
As the history of WWII, light guns largely proved virtually useless against armored vehicles.The fact that they are usually developed in the interwar years and can withstand a weak protection of the first armored vehicles.But before the beginning of the Second World Technology is rapidly modernize.Armor tanks is much thicker, so many kinds of guns was hopelessly outdated.
Time of occurrence of heavy equipment far outstripped the development of the new generation of guns.Gun crews, who were involved in the battlefields, to his surprise, noticed that their precision-guided missiles not affect tanks.Artillery was powerless to do anything.The shells simply bounced off the armored corps, without causing them any harm.
firing range for light anti-tank guns was low, so the gun crew had to fend for themselves the enemy too close to hit him for sure.Eventually the artillery of World was pushed into the background and was used as a fire support for the infantry attack.
initial speed and maximum flight range of shells Field Artillery of the time had a great influence on the preparation of offensive operations and the efficiency of defensive measures.Gunfire prevented the free movement of the enemy and could completely destroy all the supply lines.In a particularly important moment of the battle field artillery (pictures you can see in the article) is often saved his troops and helped win a victory.For example, during the war in France in 1940, Germany has applied its 105-millimeter guns leFH 18. It is worth noting that the Germans often emerged victorious in artillery duels with enemy batteries.
field guns that were in the Red Army, were represented 76.2-millimeter cannon 1942 release.It was quite a high muzzle velocity, which makes it relatively easy to penetrate German armor protection.In addition, the Soviet gun of this class have sufficient range to bombard objects beneficial to their distance.Judge for yourself: the distance that a projectile could fly, often exceeds 12 km!This allowed the Soviet commanders to prevent the remote defensive positions of the enemy offensive.
interesting fact that guns model 1942 for the time of the Second World War have released a lot more than the rest of the weapons of the same type.Surprisingly, some instances and are still in service with the Russian army.
Perhaps the most affordable and effective infantry support weapons were mortars.They are perfectly compatible properties such as range and firepower, so their use has been able to reverse the course of all the enemy offensive.
German troops often use 80-millimeter "Granatverfer-34."This weapon has earned notoriety among the allied troops of the high speed and extreme precision firing.Besides its range of fire is 2,400 m.
Red Army used for fire support of their infantry 120mm M1938, entered service in 1939.He was the first of the mortars with a caliber that have ever been produced and used in the world practice.When German troops clashed with those weapons on the battlefield, they appreciated its power, and then started up in production and was designated as "Granatverfer-42."M1932 weighed 285 kg and was the heaviest mortars view that the Marines had to drag along.To do this, it either disassembled into several parts, or pulling on a special cart.His shooting range was 400 meters lower than the German "Granatverfera-34."
In the first weeks of the war, it became clear that the infantry is extremely needs a reliable fire support.The German armed forces have encountered an obstacle in the form of a well-fortified positions and a large concentration of enemy troops.Then they decided to strengthen its mobile fire support artillery self-propelled 105-mm setting "Vespa" hoisted on tank chassis PzKpfw II.Other such weapons - "Hummel" - was part of the motorized and tank divisions since 1942.
In the same period, the Red Army came armed with self-propelled gun SU-76 gun, 76.2 mm.It was mounted on a modified chassis of a light tank T-70.Initially, the SU-76 expected to use as a fighter tanks, but in the course of its application to understand that it is too small for this firepower.
the spring of 1943, Soviet troops got a new machine - ISU-152.It was equipped with a 152.4-millimeter howitzer and was intended for destruction of tanks and mobile artillery and infantry fire support.First gun mounted on a tank chassis KV-1, and then on IP.In combat, this weapon has proved to be so effective that it remained in service with the Soviet Army and the Warsaw Pact to the 70s of the last century.
Soviet heavy artillery
This kind of tools was of great importance in the course of hostilities during the Second World War.The most severe of the then existing artillery composed the Red Army was howitzer B-4 M1931 203mm caliber.When the Soviet troops began to slow down the rapid advance of the German invaders of its territory and the war on the Eastern Front became more static nature, heavy artillery was being said, in his place.
But developers are always looking for the best option.Their task was to create a tool, which would be possible to harmoniously blended characteristics such as low weight, good range and the most severe shells.And such weapons have been created.They became the 152-mm howitzer ML-20.A short time later by the Soviet troops received more modernized weapon M1943 with the same caliber, but with a weighted barrel and a large muzzle brake.
defensive enterprises of the Soviet Union produced a huge party when such howitzers, which were massed fire at the enemy.Artillery literally devastated the German positions, and thereby plucked enemy offensive plans.An example is the operation "Storm", which was successfully carried out in 1942.Its result was the encirclement at Stalingrad German 6th Army.To do it was used more than 13 thousand. Guns of various types.Unprecedented power of artillery preparation that preceded the attack.That it contributed significantly to the rapid advance of Soviet armored forces and infantry.
German heavy weapons
According to the Treaty of Versailles after World War I Germany was forbidden to have guns with a caliber of 150 mm or more.Therefore, experts of the company "Krupp", has been developing a new gun, had to create a heavy field howitzer sFH 18 with 149.1-mm barrel, consisting of pipes, and the breech housing.
At the beginning of the war the German heavy howitzer moved using horse traction.But later it was a modernized version of already dragged half-track tractor, making it much more mobile.The German army has successfully applied it to the Eastern Front.By the end of the war sFH 18 howitzer mounted on a tank chassis.So, get self-propelled artillery "Hummel."
missile troops and artillery - is one of the divisions of land forces.Using rockets during the Second World War was mainly due to large-scale fighting on the Eastern Front.Powerful rockets their fire covered large areas than compensate for some inaccuracy of unguided weapons.Compared with conventional projectiles rockets cost it was much less, also made them very quickly.Another advantage is the relative simplicity of their operation.
Soviet rocket artillery during the war used 132-millimeter shells of M-13.They were created in the 1930s, and by the time the fascist Germany attacked the Soviet Union, were in very small quantities.These rockets, perhaps the most famous of all such missiles used during the Second World War.Gradually they established their production, and by the end of 1941, M-13 was used in the battle against the Nazis.
must say that the missile troops and artillery of the Red Army Germans plunged into a real shock, which was caused by the unprecedented power and influence of the deadly new weapon.Launchers BM-13-16 were placed on trucks and rails were 16 shells.Later, these missile systems will be known under the name of "Katyusha".Over time, they have been modernized several times and operated by the Soviet army until the '80s of the last century.With the advent of rockets expression "artillery - the god of war" came to be regarded as the truth.
German rocket launchers
new type of weapons allowed to deliver explosive battle as part of the large and small in the distance.For example, short-range missiles concentrated their firepower on targets located on the front line, while the long-range missiles with a flight struck on objects in the enemy rear.
The Germans also had a rocket artillery."Vurframen-40" - the German rocket launcher, which was placed on half-track technique Sd.Kfz.251.Rocket suggests turning on the target machine itself.Sometimes these systems were introduced in the fight as the towed artillery.
Most often the Germans used rocket launcher "Nebelverfer-41", which had a honeycomb structure.It consisted of six tubular guide and is mounted on a two-wheeled carriage.But during the fight this weapon was extremely dangerous not only for the enemy, but also for your own calculation due to pull out of the pipe zasoplovogo flame.
Weight shells with a rocket engine had a huge impact on the range of their flight.So had a significant military advantage that army, artillery that could hit targets located far behind the enemy.Heavy German missiles were useful only for surface fire, when it was necessary to destroy the heavily fortified objects, such as bunkers, armored vehicles and a variety of defenses.
worth noting that the artillery fire the Germans are much inferior in range Katyusha rocket launcher because of excessive heaviness shells.
In Hitler's armed forces played a very important role artillery.This is all the more surprising that it is almost the most important element of the Nazi war machine and modern scholars for some reason prefer to focus their attention on the study of the history of the Luftwaffe (Air Force).
Even at the end of the war German engineers continued to work on a new grand armored vehicle - a prototype of a huge tank, in comparison with which the rest of the military equipment seemed to dwarf.The project P1500 "Monster" did not have time to implement.It is only known that the tank would weigh 1.5 tons.It was planned that he would be armed with a 80-centimeter gun "Gustav" firm "Krupp".It is worth noting that its developers always think big, is no exception and artillery.This weapon entered service with the Nazi army during the siege of Sevastopol.Cannon made a total of 48 shots, after which it was worn barrel.
Railroad tools K-12 operated by the 701 th artillery battery stationed on the Channel coast.According to some reports, their shells, and they weighed 107.5 kg, was struck several targets in southern England.These monsters have had their artillery section caterpillars T-shaped, are required to install and targeting.
As previously noted, the armies of countries that participated in the hostilities of 1939-1945, came into the fight with outdated or partially upgraded guns.All their inefficiency fully discovered World War II.Artillery is urgently needed not only to upgrade, but also to increase its quantity.
From 1941 to 1944, Germany produced more than 102 thousand. With guns of different caliber and up to 70 thousand. Mortars.By the time the attack on the USSR, the Germans already numbered about 47 thousand. Artillery pieces, and that does not include assault weapons.If we take for example the United States, they are for the same period produced about 150 thousand. Guns.Britain managed to produce only 70 thousand. Weapons of this class.But the record in this race was the Soviet Union during the war there were produced more than 480 thousand. Guns and about 350 thousand. Mortars.Before that, the Soviet Union had been in service 67 th. Barrels.This figure is given without regard to the 50-millimeter mortars, artillery, navy and anti-aircraft guns.
During the years of World War II artillery belligerent countries has undergone great changes.Continuing the armies received either upgraded or completely new instrument.Especially developed rapidly, and anti-self-propelled artillery (photos of that time demonstrate its power).According to experts from different countries, about half of the loss of land forces account for the use of mortar during combat.