Ilya Glazunov has a beautiful painting called "Lord Novgorod the Great."Temple, pictured on it, its location, the fields around are very similar Nereditsa Church.No wonder, it is also near Novgorod, and spread around like in the picture Volkhov meadows.
Rurik - the first Russian princes
In Russia churches have always been built on the highest point - closer to God.In the district the highest crust - Nereditsa.It is a temple and the Transfiguration.It is devoted to two dead sons, Yaroslav.Some historians believe that by the nickname "Wise" forgot to add "severe".Do not have enough fingers to enumerate the number of children in each of the ruling Rurik in Russia.And the son of Yuri Dolgoruky, Vsevolod, due to the number of wives and children was nicknamed "Big Nest."The princes died, and when their lives brother went to war against brother, son, father, father to son.The first Russian saints - Boris and Gleb, brothers Svyatopolk Yaroslav the Wise, and that the official version killed them, for which he earned the nickname "the Accursed."It is believed that they fell at the hands of Yaroslav.Anyway, Nereditsa Church was partly devoted to them, and because a unique painting and kept the temple faces the first Russian saints.
temple was erected a temple near the residence of Yaroslav, three kilometers from Novgorod.He put his temple near the towers on the territory of the settlement.Now this place is an archaeological monument, known as the "Rurik settlement" and is included in the Historical Heritage list under the title "The Great Novgorod", protected by UNESCO.Monastery, situated around a little later of the Transfiguration Nereditsa, was called "Saviour on the mound."In Novgorod in the period of the reign of Yaroslav conducted an active church building.Unlike a lot of the Sophia Cathedral, the end of XII and the beginning of the XIII century is actively built the temples of the small sizes.The church is located on the banks of the river Spasskaya.Past the church took the road to Moscow.Erected in one summer 1198 Nereditsa Church was the last building of Yaroslav on this earth.Novgorod expelled him.But it was the last prince and construction in general - Novgorod became a free city.
conditions guaranteeing the originality
church itself is small, although it makes an impressive appearance.She, too, is part of the historical heritage "Veliky Novgorod", as well as other preserved churches built by Yaroslav and his predecessors.Samples of Kiev churches, taken as a basis, enriched by local traditions commercial city, artistic taste of architects and artists.They acquired originality due to the nature of the construction and stone masonry techniques.It was peculiar - alternately stacked layers plinfy (bricks of limestone), local stone, bad workability, the solution with the addition of brick chips and Volkhov limestone.Because of irregularities plinth walls were rough.All this has provided the local identity and the construction of a separate niche called "architecture of Novgorod Land", which is a typical representative Nereditsa Church.
small size temple, to which applies the adjective "Chamber" was hoisted in honor of slain sons, and was conceived as a prince's tomb.The construction was accelerated pace, the timing was a record - only 4 months, but all the next 1199 Church painted.In its form and architecture (cube-shaped-dome church) Church of the Savior on Nereditsa resembles other religious buildings, erected during the same times.Very similar to him are the Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereyaslav-Zalessky, Demetrius Cathedral in Vladimir, Pyatnitskaya church in Chernigov, in the Church of the Annunciation Arkazhi, Peter and Paul, and others mountain Sinichnoy.All of them are the main type of an Orthodox church.Construction of stone cross-domed church in Russia began with the construction of the Tithe church in Kiev at the end of the X century, the active church building of this type of activity continues today.It is in our day to restore the destroyed Soviet regime places of worship, and built new ones.And it is good that they retain their shape inherent Russian Orthodox temple, and so reminiscent of the paintings Nesterov and Glazunov.Maintain the continuity, modern children instilled a love for Russia since childhood, and the concept of "Holy Russia" getting very close.
purely national traits
Church of the Saviour on Nereditsa refers to cross-dome, with four pillars bearing inner places of worship.He, like many such buildings have pozakomarnoe cover inherent Russian Orthodox church construction.Zakomary privately or semi-circular curved roof are quite complex performed, repeats the shape of the church roof.The very zakomary crowned fence - vertical fragment of the facade of the church.These vertical pieces on the one hand, adorn the temple, on the other - gives it a unique identity.Because of their small size church of the Transfiguration Nereditsa has small choirs representing the mezzanine to accommodate the choir.
Device church Nereditsa
Usually these premises - the choir loft or - are in the public gallery or balcony inside the church, and are always located on the second floor on the wall opposite the altar.This church has a very thick walls, narrow staircase and the entrance to the gallery, located on the wooden reel, cut out in the west wall.On the loft there are two chapels.The church of Our Savior in Novgorod is Nereditsa wrong proportions, rough walls, but it does not spoil it, but the church lends a certain elegance and originality.Plastic walls considered surprising.Despite many similarities, the church is unique.
church was erected quickly, and although it was painted a year, the timing of applying the frescoes were also relatively short.Painting was covered by all the interior space - walls, canopy, supporting columns, and in this she was not equal.Largest picturesque ensemble, the famous monument monumental painting not only in Russia but also in Europe - that is painting, which has rescued Nereditsa.Novgorod boasts another such church.
forgotten and stored
many centuries was a church, harmoniously blend into the surrounding landscape, and there was much hype around it.Interest in it originated in the second half of the XIX century.Artist N. Martynov in 1867 in Paris received a bronze medal for watercolor copies nereditskih murals.In 1910, it begins the restoration of frescoes and active learning.All this is more or less intensively continued until the 30s.This work all the time pushing Nicholas Roerich, who wanted to keep this gem as Savior Nereditsa.The murals of the temple came to the time in remarkably good condition.
only thanks to the work carried out at the time, these treasures are preserved in photographs and copies up to now and published in book form.Themselves frescoes, and the temple, killing everything in 1941 from Nazi shelling since the church was firing point.So great was the value of this church that the restoration work began in 1944.Temple rebuilt so skillfully that hardly anyone admits it post-war creation.Recreate the church was made possible only because of measurement drawings made in 1903-1904 Academician AP Pivovarov.
afar seen standing on the hill Church of the Savior on Nereditsa.Photos available in large quantities, transmit its spectacular beauty.Externally it an exact copy of its predecessor, but the interior could not recover, as retained 15% of the original paintings, mainly the upper part - the walls, arches, dome.
uniqueness of the source is not only that it was painted everything - were striking brushwork and theme frescoes.
Unusually for the time, and was considered a relic of the image in the dome, "Ascension," the figure of Christ with six angels.At this time, the dome was decorated "Pantokratom."It was usually a depiction of Jesus.He created a blessing with his right hand, the left holding the Gospel.At 9 tiers were located church frescoes.There were here the song "Baptism", portraits of dead prince and the first Saints Boris and Gleb.Was there a large portrait of Yaroslav and a large composition of Judgement, in which there was a place for the story "rich in hell."The general program of painting, such as in St. Sophia Cathedral, was absent, there was not the slightest chronology of events, but it does not beg the importance nereditskih frescoes.
Many experts attribute the lack of system the presence of a large number of masters and rush the order.And some suggest that Jaroslav short summer months when usually painted church, invited independent from each other specialists, one of whom was even a foreigner.Therefore, there is such discord.
exact name of the artist is unknown, but (presumably) much points to the fact that it was Ikonnikov Olis Grechin.Archaeologists have found his studio, where more points to his involvement in nereditskim paintings.Experts note that the sweeping brushwork, close, rather, the eastern manner than the strict Byzantine.
After the war, the Church of the Transfiguration Nereditsa was completely restored in 1958, and in 1992 was included in the World Heritage List.
great achievement is that it is now an exposition in the 3D.Students at the University of Leningrad black-and-white photos and sketches, preserved in the archives, and managed to recreate the interior and exterior decoration of the temple, and it changes over time.And all of this is true.
Currently, the church itself several days a week working as a museum open to the public.