Among the many philosophical systems that recognize the primacy of the spiritual principle in the world of material things, a few stand out the teachings of John. Berkeley and David Hume, which can be briefly described as subjective idealism.The prerequisites of their conclusions were the works of medieval scholastics nominalists and their successors - such as conceptualism John Locke, who claims to have in common - is the mental distraction of frequently recurring features a variety of things.
Based on the positions of John Locke, the English philosopher John Bishop. Berkeley gave them their original interpretation.If there are only scattered, isolated objects, and only the human mind, catching duplicate, display some of these properties, identifies objects in groups and calls these groups any words, it can be assumed that there can be no abstract idea, not based on the propertyand the quality of the facilities.That is, we can not imagine anyone abstract, but thinking "man," we imagine a certain way.Consequently, in addition to the abstraction of consciousness have their existence, they are generated only by our brain activity.This is subjective idealism.
In the work "On the Principles of Human Knowledge" thinker formulates its basic idea: "exist" - it means "to be perceived."We perceive an object our senses, but does that mean that the object is identical to our feelings (and ideas) about it?Subjective idealism George. Berkeley argues that our sensations we "simulate" the object of our perception.Then it turns out, if the subject does not feel knowable object, that object is not at all - as there was in Antarctica, alpha particles, or Pluto in the days of John. Berkeley.
Then the question arises: was there anything before man?As a Catholic bishop, John. Berkeley was forced to leave his subjective idealism or, as it is called, solipsism, and move to the position of objective idealism.Endless Time Spirit had in mind all the things before the start of their existence, and he gives them to us to feel.A whole variety of things and the order in which a person must conclude, as far as God is wise and good.
British philosopher David Hume developed a subjective idealism of Berkeley.Based on the ideas of empiricism - the knowledge of the world through the experience - the philosopher warns that our handling general ideas are often based on our sense perceptions of individual objects.But the subject and our sensory perception of it - is not always the same.Therefore, the task of philosophy - the study not of nature but of the subjective world, perceptions, feelings, human logic.
subjective idealism of Berkeley and Hume had a significant impact on the evolution of British empiricism.It was used, and the French Enlightenment and the installation of agnosticism in theory of knowledge Hume gave impetus to the formation of the criticism of Kant.The position of the "thing in itself" of this German scientist was the basis of German classical philosophy.Epistemological optimism of Francis Bacon and skepticism Hume later prompted the philosophers to the idea of "verification" and "falsification" of ideas.