Productivity - the formula calculation.

Labour productivity is a universal criterion that characterizes cost effectiveness of labor in material production.Its versatility is in two areas of its use as a tool: a private - with respect to individual production worker, shop, business, and public concerning the region, country or group of countries.

should be recognized that this figure is really useful economic indicator, demonstrating the basic criterion for the efficiency of production, determining, for example, in the particular case, how many products will make a work of man-hours (thus, the criterion is the level of social production is the economic characteristics -productivity.)

formula for calculating it exists in several versions, different consider various factors affecting production.And a lot of them.If we talk about the development of the company, such factors will be its automation and improving product quality, reducing costs and materials, advanced logistics solutions and energy efficiency, tax optimization, as well as improving the capital structure.

Russian economy in the international productivity

level of cost of living labor in the production of material goods describes adaptability of social production.This figure is an important measure of the economic potential of the country.Russia on this indicator is the leader among the CIS states, showing its growth from 1999 to 2011 by 60%.However, statistics show that this growth has been made possible due to the fact that the day before, in the period from 1989 to 1998. In the country systematically decreased productivity.The formula for calculating its dynamics, compiled by the World Bank showed that over the past decade the Russians managed to significantly improve the competitiveness of the economy.In 2010, labor productivity in the Russian economy amounted to 43% of the level of developed countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (which includes 34 countries, including the US, Canada and EU countries) and 75% of the countries that have recently entered into itCommunity.

historical assessment of the dynamics of labor productivity

interesting analysis of the dynamics of labor productivity in Russia presented the doctor of economic sciences, head of the Center for International Economic Comparisons Kudrow Valentin.He compared the productivity of the Soviet Union and the United States at different times.The scientist believes that under Khrushchev, the figure for the Soviet Union was at 35% of the US level, and under Brezhnev (which strongly silent) dropped significantly - up to 27%.At the same time, overcoming the crisis, Russia once again reached the level of this ratio, even slightly surpassing "Khrushchev."

as scientists believe, on ways to improve the efficiency of social production will improve the social order, overcoming pockets of systemic inefficiencies associated with:

- inefficient organization of labor;

- full loads of outdated production capacity;

- unqualified personnel;

- inadequate labor laws challenges of our time;

- obsolete technologies;

- bureaucratic barriers;

- lack of motivation;

- a deficit market financial flows.

Productivity as the emphasis of modern economic policy

further productivity growth, economists linked to the increase in technological production.Extensive way irrelevant.The executive branch, implementing strategic planning of economic development, certainly should monitor the compliance of macroeconomic indicators of GDP and labor costs for its production.The importance of the problem of increasing the productivity of labor manifested in government planning of activities.In 2012, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a decree number 596, planning long-term economic policy until 2018.In this document we are talking about increasing productivity in the Russian national economy by half, compared with the 2011 level.To realize this plan, as the president himself said, it will only be through the implementation of innovative scenarios dormant economy.Moreover, in the key sectors of the economy should reach the line fourfold increase productivity!

Essence improve productivity

problem cumulative reduction of production costs while reducing them in the proportion of living labor is the hallmark of modern technology.At the same time the process of improving productivity is not hidden, it is visualized through increased production while maintaining a high level of quality: the production becomes more efficient.The latter means not only an increase in its volume, but also reduce the cost per unit of output;optimization of cycle circulation of goods;maximizing profit margins.

In addition, long-term trend of improving the quality of work must be accompanied by an increase of its payment (as a motivational factor in increasing the production of individual staff performance).At the executive level must be constantly weighed, the efficiency of human labor is related to his personal wealth.In a progressive society should be systematically correlated with the social status of his work activity.

productivity.Formula number 1

Obviously, process control increase productivity should be based on the definitions and methods of its evaluation.Plans to improve the efficiency of human labor are drawn up with the help of two indicators.Classically productivity is determined on the basis of development, and the complexity.Production can be defined as the quotient obtained by dividing the volume of manufactured products (O) to spent on its production time, count on living labor expended (T) (see Eq. 1).

B = G / T (1)

complexity - the return value with respect to the development, t. E., It shows how much time a worker has to spend for the manufacture of products specified value (see Eq. 2).

W = T / Q (2)

should also be clarified that the volume of manufactured products is calculated value (the most universal, common), natural, semi-natural and labor form.

The mining industry is dominated by natural form, in light industry - semi-natural.Workers' method uses a technique that actually elapsed time compared to the standard.

usually calculated on the development of conditional intervals, demonstrating the effort (chelovekoden, man hours).However, it is evident that this formula is approximate, qualitative.After all, in practice, it is a nonlinear function of productivity.The formula for calculating minimum should depend on the number of production workers (ie. E. To take into account the scale of production) and besprostoynosti production.

Productivity: time trouble extensive development

rather peculiar is the relationship of productivity and product quality.Currently, the Russian industry is dominated by semi-organization of production.In this situation, improving production standards will inevitably lead to an increase in workers' manual labor. "The latter circumstance, if he is inexperienced, means failure to comply with the plan, and in the case of a qualifying product quality decreases.

How can extensively increase productivity?The formula for calculating show: increased working hours (or by clicking on a six-day working week).Profitability did rise slightly due to the fact that the fixed costs remain unchanged.However, this term only leads to one thing - social tensions, "the lower classes do not want to, and upper classes can not."

labor productivity in non-manufacturing sectors

it only in the industrial sector should be determined productivity?The US economy, for example, shows a tendency to a significant excess of the share of services in GDP.For example, in 2010 the share of US production of goods in GDP was less than 20%!Hence it becomes obvious that the performance of the engineer, the analyst determined by other criteria, other than relevant to an industrial worker.For them, the relevant indicators of qualification in the use of special programs, access to the reference data.Also, their performance affects the competence of the management and coordination of the working group.

Regarding the managerial important criterion is knowledge of the characteristics of the enterprise and entrusted to the existing experience of the manager.

productivity.Formula 2

For most formulas for determining the relevance of labor productivity (L), we introduce its member labor, as well as the factor of downtime.Simple will be considered by CRC (coefficient of downtime), defined as the ratio of the actual idle time to the total operating time.Nested in proizvozvodstvo "manual labor" expended the workforce will be expressed in terms of T1 - individual labor, attributable to one working, and B - number of employees.Thus, we get a second formula for determining labor productivity (see Eq. 3):

P = (O * (1 - CRC)) / (T1 * H) (3)

However, as we have already mentioned, the complexand a non-linear concept is productivity.Formula it, obviously depends not only on the human factor.

Formula labor productivity taking into account the costs

It seems complex issue of expediency of investment in production - the main criterion for the efficiency of the economy.It is based on the assessment of labor productivity by analyzing its diversified.The investor should be guided in advance what costs will result in a production cycle of the company he founded.Therefore, it is advisable to assess what costs it will incur in the production of 1 ruble.Accordingly, the above formula will be expanded at the expense of per unit cost of production factors: short-circuit (capital expenditure);EZ (operating costs);R (repair costs);FROM (trudooplaty);H (taxes and obligatory payments);Dr. (other occurring costs (administrative, other).

P = (O * (1 - CRC)) / (H * W * T 1) = (O * (1 - CRC)) / ((CP + EZ +P + OT + H + Ap) * T1 * H)

Strategy managers to improve productivity

Consideration studied our economic performance in the context of microeconomics suggests a multifactorial environment. The leading direction of industrial development is rightly considered automation. Thus, imperfectly performed by employeesmonitoring and control functions purposefully transferred to specialized devices and automatic devices.

Many well-known managers, starting the company's management, are beginning to fight for productivity with organizational measures: simplifying the structure, reducing workers can not cope with industrial standards, honing logistics optimization Beck-Office. They also used the optimization of the range of products on the criterion of profitability.

average productivity

quite rare companies and industrial enterprises that produce range of products, consisting of only one product.It is obvious that the position of each product range entails different production costs.As in this case is determined by the average productivity?The formula for the average output (Sun) is the sum of the number of products manufactured products for each item range (Oi), multiplied by the appropriate conversion factor (Ki) (see Eq. 4):

Sun = Σ Oi * Ki (4)

very same factor is defined as follows:

- revealed the least time-consuming position range;

- the complexity of any other of its positions is divided by the minimum labor input.This is the desired ratio.

aforementioned sum of the products by means of conversion factors equates the production of diverse products to the development of a uniform, minimum complexity.

Conclusion To achieve the current level of productivity, especially investors should take into account many factors: the material, technical, human and financial.All of them, these factors should be taken into account by managers comprehensive strategy to create a truly promising and successful production.

However, even with the best organization of a leading role in the progress of labor productivity in the company owned by the labor collective: the production and nonproduction personnel.It is these people better than all visible untapped potential of "their" company.Accordingly, they should be interested in a partnership with the company's management: to find opportunities for increased productivity: increase production, save costs, reduce labor intensity.

If the factors of production facility staff acts indirectly - through the management, on the reserves - directly.What are reserves?The short answer: it is rationalization work in two areas: technical and organizational.Reserves, unlike factors (is a strategic category) recorded promptly and at shorter periods of time, their use demonstrates the tactics of improving productivity now.