Case of the Russian Revolution, oddly enough, has coincided with the rapid feminization of women.More and more girls in the late 19th - early 20th century rejected the role of wife and mother and plunged into active struggle, not only for their rights, but also in general for human rights.One of the brightest member of the revolutionary movement in the turn of the century was Vera Figner that entered the history of the preparation of a daring attempt on the Emperor Alexander II.
Famous revolutionary Figner Vera, as is usually vodilos in the nascent revolutionary movement, was of noble origin.In his autobiography, she wrote in Moscow in 1926, when he was deeply convinced revolutionary, she pointed out that Alexander Figner, her paternal grandfather was a nobleman from Livonia (present-day Baltic states).In 1828, being lieutenant colonel, he was assigned to the nobility in the Kazan province.
landlords were also maternally.Grandpa Vera Nikolayevna, Christopher P. Kupriyanov, from large landowners, served as county judge.He owned land in the county and Tetyushinskom Ufa province.But from his wealth were only 400 of tithes Hristoforovka village, which moved her mother.Father Nikolai Figner, in 1847 with the rank of captain retired.
Figner faith itself was born in 1852 in Kazan province.The family had five children: sister Lydia, Eugene and Olga, the brothers Nicholas and Peter.Remembering her parents, future terrorist wrote that they were completely different in temperament, but at the same time energetic and strong-willed, besides the incredible activity.These qualities, she says, have been vaccinated in one way or another all children, each of which is probably due to the harsh upbringing has left its mark on history.
Vera Figner, biography is detailed in her book "Sealed work", she wrote that her childhood was not recognized personality of the child, and there was no kinship between parents and children.At the heart of education lay the strictest discipline, instilled Spartan habits.Moreover, the brothers and subjected to corporal punishment.The only close friend for the children was their old nurse Natalia Makarievna.Yet Vera Figner notes that the family never had a quarrel, do not swear words could be heard, "and it was not a lie."Due to the service of his father the family lived in the village and was deprived of the conventions of urban life, and therefore, Vera says, "we did not know of any hypocrisy, no gossip and backbiting."
a result of or in spite of, but the offspring of the family came, as they say, to the people: Peter has become a major mining engineer, Nikolai - famous opera singer.But the sisters, all three of them, devoted themselves to the revolutionary struggle.
Figner and Vera, a brief biography is presented in our review, and dedicated herself to the cause of revolution bright.
childhood ended when the girl was picked in Kazan Rodionovskaya Institute for Noble Maidens.Education based on religious dogma, to which Vera remained indifferent, going deeper into atheism.The training lasted for six years, during which the girl went home for the holidays only four times.
After graduation Vera Figner returned home to the village.As she wrote in the wilderness they only visited Uncle Peter Kupriyanov, who knew the ideas of Chernyshevsky, Dobrolyubov and Pisarev, as well as the doctrine of utilitarianism, which are imbued with the young girl.Direct acquaintance with the peasantry, she had no real life and reality, it's apt remark, passed it, which adversely affected its acquaintance with life and people.
first acquaintance with the serious literature Figner have happened in 13 years, when her uncle Kupriyanov allowed to take with him to institute an annual filing magazine "Russian word."However, it works Read had no effect on her.The Institute reading was banned and books that gave his mother belonged to the literature and influenced more sensuality than intellectual development.Serious journalism did not fall into her hands for a time.
first impression made on her novel "One is safety in numbers" Spielhagen.Oddly enough, but important book for themselves Vera Figner celebrated gospel.Despite the commitment to atheism, she learned from the book of life of the principles that have guided life.In particular, fully and oneself again chosen goal.Nekrasov's poem "Sasha", which taught not to separate the word from the case, completed the formation of the ideological foundation of the personality of the future revolutionary.
desire to be useful, how to bring more happiness to the greatest number of people logically led to her desire to learn from Aesculapius.She decided to study medicine in Switzerland.But to realize this intention it was only in 1870, after she married a young investigator Alexei Viktorovich Filippov.Hearing one day, how is the questioning of the suspect and saw this infamy, persuaded her husband gave it up and go with her to receive a medical degree at the University of Zurich.
came abroad, Figner Vera met for the first time and entered the ideas of socialism and people's commune movement.Choosing the socialist transformation started with visits to the circle "Fritsche" in Zurich, where she met with the French socialists Cabet, Saint-Simon, Fourier, Louis Blanc, Proudhon.As she noted, select the side of the revolution it inspired not so much by a keen sense of justice, as "brutal suppression of the revolutionary movements of the ruling class."
Return to Russia
In 1875 he came to Russia members of the circle "Fritsche" to promote socialist ideas among the working class, were arrested.After receiving a call from his companions to renew the revolutionary communications in Russia, Vera Figner - biography briefly touches her feelings and doubts on this score - he was forced to leave university studies and return home.Doubt it was linked to the fact that she throws deal on halfway, but always considered it cowardice.In Russia, it is still passed the exam for paramedic.After five years of marriage, she divorced her husband, who did not share her enthusiasm revolution, and went to St. Petersburg.
the mid 70s of the 19th century began to form a new revolutionary center, the program that carried is not just revolutionary romanticism, but concrete action.In particular, the real fight with the government.For the first time we are talking about the use of dynamite in the fight.
in 1878 sounded the first shot of a revolutionary, change the direction of this movement in Russia.In St. Petersburg mayor Trepov Vera Zasulich shot.It was revenge for corporal punishment, which suffered a political convict, because his superiors did not take off the hat.After that, all over the country have been retaliation with the use of terror.
Creation of "Narodnaya Volya»
Vera Figner although not directly included in the movement of "Land and Freedom", however the adjoining ideas and their own autonomous circle "separatists".She participated in the congress of the organization in Voronezh.However, as she wrote, at the Congress up to what have not agreed.Compromise came down to in order to continue the revolutionary education in the countryside and at the same time to fight with the government.The compromise, as usual, led to the fact that the movement was divided.Those who thought it necessary to actively deal with the government and saw his task of overthrowing the autocracy, united in the Party "Narodnaya Volya".Vera Figner entered its Executive Committee.
members of the new party were extremely strongly.Several members of the organization preparing the dynamite and the other is developing a plan to assassinate Emperor Alexander II.Vera Figner, photos that tell us about the fine and the whole girl, but not about suicide, actively participated in the preparation of attacks in Odessa in 1880 and in St. Petersburg in 1881.Initially, participation was not planned, but, as she wrote, "my tears softened his comrades," and she took part in his first terrorist attacks.
the death penalty in the balance
entire organization into the hands of investigation in 1883.Faith held in the fortress 20 months in total isolation.Then there was tried and sentenced to death, which was replaced with a perpetual hard labor.In Schlüsselburg she spent twenty years.In 1904, she was sent to Archangel, then in the Kazan province.After the transfer to Nizhny Novgorod, she was allowed to leave Russia, and in 1906 she went to treat the nervous system abroad.
At home, she returned only in 1915, was elected to the Constituent Assembly after the February Revolution.But the October Revolution did not take, and a member of the Communist Party did not become.In 1932, in her eightieth year, it was published the complete works in seven volumes, which included its main opus - a novel "Sealed work" of the Russian revolutionary movement.