The most famous explorers and their discoveries

Travel has always attracted people, but before they were not only interesting, but also very complex.The territories were not investigated, and, going on a journey, everyone became a researcher.What are the most famous travelers and discovered exactly what each of them?

James Cook

Famous Englishman, was one of the best cartographers of the eighteenth century.He was born in the north of England and has to thirteen years began to work with his father.But the boy was unable to trade, so I decided to go sailing.In those days all the known world traveler sent to distant lands in ships.James became interested in maritime affairs and so quickly progressed through the ranks, he was asked to become a captain.He refused and went to the Royal Navy.Already in 1757 he became a talented cook to control the ship.Its first achievement was the drafting of the fairway the St. Lawrence River.He discovered his talent navigator and cartographer.In the 1760s he studied Newfoundland, what drew the attention of the Royal Society and the Admiralty.He charged journey through the Pacific Ocean, where it reached the coast of New Zealand.In 1770, he made something not previously sought other famous travelers - has opened a new continent.In England in 1771-m Cook returned the famous pioneer of Australia.His last journey was the expedition in search of the passage connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.Today, even a schoolboy knows the sad fate of Cook, who was killed natives are cannibals.

Christopher Columbus

Famous travelers and their discovery have always had a considerable influence on the course of history, but few have been so famous as this man.Columbus became a national hero of Spain strongly expanded map of the country.Christopher was born in 1451.The boy quickly achieved success, as was a diligent and well-studied.Already at the age of 14 he went to sea.In 1479th he met his love and began living in Portugal, but after the tragic death of the wife and son went to Spain.Having received the support of the Spanish king, he went on an expedition, whose purpose was to find the way to Asia.Three ships sailed from the coast of Spain to the west.In October 1492 the second they got to the Bahamas.Since America was discovered.Local residents decided to Christopher mistakenly called Indians, believing that reached India.His report has changed the story: two new continents and many islands, discovered by Columbus, have become the main direction of travel of the colonialists in the next few centuries.

Vasco da Gama

most famous traveler who was born in Portugal, Sines.The exact date of his birth is not known.From a young age he worked in the Navy and became famous as a confident and fearless captain.In 1495 in Portugal came to power King Manuel, who wanted to develop trade with India.To do this, we needed a sea route, in search of which was to go to Vasco da Gama.There were more famous explorers and travelers, but for some reason, the king chose him.In 1497, four ships went south, rounded the Cape of Good Hope and sailed to Mozambique.There had to stay for a month - half of the team at that time was ill with scurvy.After the break, Vasco da Gama reached Calcutta.In India, it is three months Trade relations, and a year later returned to Portugal, where he became a national hero.The discovery of the sea route, allows you to get to Calcutta by the east coast of Africa, was his greatest achievement.

Nikolai Maclay

Famous Russian travelers also made many important discoveries.For example, the same Nicholas Mihluho-Maclay, who was born in 1864 in the Novgorod province.He could not finish the University of St. Petersburg, as for participating in student demonstrations he was expelled.For the continuation of education Nicholas went to Germany, where he met Haeckel - naturalist who invited Maclay in his scientific expedition.Since it opened to the world travels.His whole life was devoted to travel and research.Nicholas lived in Sicily, in Australia, studied New Guinea, embodying the project of the Russian Geographical Society, visited Indonesia, the Philippines, the Malay Peninsula and in Oceania.In 1886 the scientist returned to Russia and suggested the emperor to found a Russian colony overseas.But the project with New Guinea has not received the royal support, and Maclay became seriously ill and died, so did not complete its work on a book about travel.

Ferdinand Magellan

Many famous explorers and travelers living in the Age of Discovery.Magellan is no exception.In 1480 he was born in Portugal, in the city of Sabroza.Sent to serve at the court (at the time he was only 12 years old), he learned about the confrontation between the home country and Spain, travel to the East Indies and trade routes.Since he first became interested in the sea.In 1505-m Fernand hit the ship.Seven years after that he plied the seas, participated in expeditions to India and Africa.In 1513 Magellan went to Morocco, where he was wounded in battle.But it did not die craving for travel - he planned the expedition of spices.King rejected his application, and Magellan went to Spain, where he received all the necessary support.Thus began his journey around the world.Fernand thought that the west route to India may be shorter.He crossed the Atlantic, reached South America and discovered the strait, which later would be called by his name.Ferdinand Magellan was the first European who saw the Pacific Ocean.According to him, he reached the Philippines and almost reached the goal - the Moluccas, but was killed in a battle with the local tribes, the wounded poisoned arrow.However, his journey has opened a new ocean Europe and the understanding that the planet is much more than scientists first thought.

Roald Amundsen

Norwegian born at the end of an era in which many well-known famous travelers.Amundsen was the last of the sailors, who were trying to find the undiscovered land.Since childhood, characterized by perseverance and faith in their abilities that enabled him to conquer the South geographic pole.Home path associated with 1893, when the boy left the University and got a sailor.In 1896 he became a navigator, and the following year went on his first expedition to the Antarctic.The ship was lost in the ice, the team was sick with scurvy, but Amundsen did not give up.He took command of themselves, to cure people, remembering his medical studies, and brought the ship back to Europe.Becoming a captain in 1903, he went in search of the Northwest Passage from Canada.Famous explorers before him had never made anything like that - two years the team has overcome the way from the East of the American continent to its west.Amundsen became known to the whole world.Following a two-month expedition began to march to the South plus, and latest venture - search for Nobile, during which he was missing.

David Livingstone

Many famous travelers associated with seafaring.David Livingstone became a researcher of land, namely the African continent.The famous Scot was born in March 1813.At age 20 he decided to become a missionary, met with Robert Moffet and wished to go to the African villages.In 1841 th he arrived in Kuruman, where he taught the locals agriculture, served as physician and taught to read and write.There he learned the language Bechuanas that helped him traveling around Africa.Livingston studied in detail the life and customs of the local people, wrote several books about them and went on an expedition in search of the sources of the Nile, which became ill and died of a fever.

Amerigo Vespucci

most famous world travelers often were from Spain or Portugal.Amerigo Vespucci was born in Italy and has become one of the most famous Florentines.He received a good education and trained as a financier.From 1490 he worked in Seville, in the sales office of the Medici.His life has been associated with sea travel, for example, he sponsored a second expedition of Columbus.Christopher instilled in him the idea to try yourself as a traveler, and in 1499th Vespucci went to Suriname.The aim of the study was swimming the shoreline.There he opened a settlement called Venezuela - Little Venice.In 1500, he returned home, bringing 200 slaves.In 1501 and 1503 years.Amerigo repeated his journey, addressing not only the navigator, and cartographer.He discovered the bay of Rio de Janeiro, whose name he gave.From 1505 he served the king of Castile and was not involved in the campaigns, but fitted out another's expedition.

Francis Drake

Many famous explorers and their discoveries carried benefit humanity.But among them there are those who left on their own and bad memories because their names were associated with a fairly violent events.It was not an exception and Francis Drake, the English Protestant, with twelve sail boats.It captures the locals in the Caribbean, selling them into slavery Spaniards attacked the court and fought with the Catholics.Perhaps no one could catch up with Drake on the number of captured foreign ships.His trips sponsored by the Queen of England.In 1577 he went to South America to defeat the Spanish settlement.During the journey, he found Tierra del Fuego and the Strait, which was subsequently named after him.Rounding Argentina, Drake plundered the port of Valparaiso, and two Spanish vessels.When they reached California, he met Aborigines who presented gifts from the British tobacco and feathers.Drake crossed the Indian Ocean and returned to Plymouth, becoming the first native of the UK, has been in a world tour.He was accepted in the House of Commons and was awarded the title of Sir.In 1595 he was killed in the last campaign in the Caribbean.

Athanasius Nikitin

few known Russian travelers have the same height as the native of Tver land.Athanasius Nikitin became the first European to visit India.He made the trip to the Portuguese colonialists and wrote "Journey Beyond Three Seas" - a valuable literary and historical monument.The success of the expedition provided the merchant's career: Athanasius knew several languages ​​and was able to negotiate with the people.In his journey, he arrived in Baku, lived in Persia for nearly two years and reached India by ship.After visiting several cities exotic country, he went to Parvat, where he stayed for six years.Once the province of Raichur, he went to Russia, paving the route through the Arabian Peninsula and the Somali.Athanasius Nikitin, however, never made it home, as ill and died near Smolensk, but the notes are preserved and provided to the merchant world fame.