Winter rye: general description

Winter rye is a very important food crop and forage, which includes a large amount of protein (15 percent) and hydrocarbons (81 per cent).In addition, its grain contains vitamins A, B, and E. From the baked rye bread flour, that the biological and nutritional value exceeds wheat analogue.The main agronomic importance of culture, first of all, is that due to its rapid growth and high tillering it can effectively suppress weeds.Rye bran, corn flour and used in the form of concentrated feed that is not inferior to perennial grasses in quality.In addition, winter rye is also used for technical purposes.More specifically, it can be recycled to the molasses, alcohol and starch, and from the straw to produce pulp and acetic acid.

Culture formed from a weed that infests wheat crops.The place of origin is considered Southeast Asia and the Caucasus.In Ukraine, winter rye first appeared around the first millennium BC, and the first mention of the cultivation on the territory of Russia dated ninth century.Now its cultivation is widespread, not only here but also in the US and Western Europe.Despite this, in global terms of all cereal grains rye located on one of the last positions.The area of ​​its annual crop of about twenty million hectares.When grown in the fertile soils of rye, and with the introduction of a sufficient amount of fertilizer it gives good yields (up to 20 quintals per hectare).At the same time, compared with the wheat figure about half less.

Now a few words about when to sow winter rye.This is done in the autumn, when the average temperature is about fifteen degrees.In this case, significantly reducing the likelihood of damaging parasites, and culture itself better root.Crops able to withstand the cold of 25 degrees.Germination in the soil begins to occur even at 2 degrees of heat, and friendly shoots are formed when the temperature is 10 degrees.Thanks to its well-developed root system of winter rye brings even spring drought.Moreover, during the period of their growth culture is not very demanding on the humidity, so well-developed and long rains, and in the heat.It is not choosy and to the type of soil.Rye normally grows even on sandy and infertile soil.Compared to other cereals, it is better to absorb phosphorus and potassium from the ground directly.

The most common we have the tetraploid and diploid varieties of winter rye.The difference between them is the number of chromosomes constituting the somatic cells of the plant.The first of these species appeared relatively recently and has 28 chromosomes.As regards the second, then it has 14 chromosomes.More widespread diploid varieties.The most popular of them are such as Niva, Will and Boguslavka.The tetraploid Group noted in September, and Puhovchanku Drevlyane.