Today's pace of life and update rate of scientific and practical knowledge used by modern man in work and in everyday life, poses a lot of questions about how to remember more and remember longer significant amounts of diverse information.Unfortunately, most schools do not teach such subjects as the mnemonic, learning different techniques, methods and practices of remembering and storing knowledge."Memory Palace" - one of the oldest of mnemonics.In this article we will talk about its history, various modifications and possibilities of practical application.
How does memory?
Without going into scientific research, recall what kind of process - memory.The information enters our brain goes through four basic stages:
in the process of remembering involves all the senses, fixing incoming information: eye, note the color and brightness of the font, the nose detects the smell of a library or fresh ink ears hear the rustle of pages and hands "remember" the severity of the book and its cover texture.After receiving all the information the brain via nerve impulses transmits all information in the hippocampus - a special pair portion of the cerebral cortex that performs the function of control over the quality of the information stored.According to studies, this is the part of the brain while keeping selected in the flow of nerve impulses critical data, and then forwards them to the cortex of the hemispheres, where is the main store.Thus, the hippocampus is responsible for short-term, and the cerebral cortex - for long-term memory.
But always before the man was acutely problem of finding the necessary information at the right time in the "corners" of his memory.
During the narration about the art of memory and used mnemonist techniques and methods are constantly reminded of catch phrase that all new - it is well forgotten old.Most mnemonics successfully used today, were described in 82 BC.e.in a brief tutorial on rhetoric Rhetorica ad Herennium.Outlined in this tome mnemonic methods, techniques and memory training is widely used in ancient and the Middle Ages.
Lawyer Peter of Ravenna, who lived in the XV century, using a technique such as the palaces of memory for storing words and quotes.And the number of palaces in his case is not counted in the tens and thousands, and in them, in alphabetical order contains key phrases and quotes on topics important to him.This method he described in his book "Phoenix", published in the late XV century.
Along with logic, grammar and rhetoric techniques of memory were the basis of the classical European liberal education.Students are forced to learn not only the material, but also explains how to do it.
Modern politicians and businessmen are well aware of how to build a memory palace and use the mnemonics for their own purposes.
Who is the author?
Today it is impossible to determine exactly who was first created and used the technique of storing a huge number of names, historic dates, quotations and facts - Greek poet Simonides and the Roman orator Cicero.The essence of the technique used by them was that they possessed the necessary information in a way familiar to the building.In the imagination, they filled the rooms of this building, the key words - in short, all those that want to remember.In the future, at any time, can be reproduced in the imagination of the building, walk through it and remember all that is needed.Later this technique came to be called a memory palace method Cicero, road machinery.
Roman room or the road Cicero
Considering how long-lived the Roman orator and philosopher Cicero, do not have to be surprised that he is credited with several options for the use of mnemonics.According to one version, preparing for public speaking, he went on numerous rooms of his house, and they are located in different theses, quotes and dates.Speaking, he kept repeating his way and gave the necessary information.Another version says that to remember the Roman rhetorician used the road that day, he had to walk.Of course, being observant and attentive man, Cicero knew all its features, to which "tied" he needed items, facts, and so on. D.
In the Middle Ages, especially in the times of the Inquisition, to the ministers of the church particularly acuterose problem storing large amounts of various information.Religious leaders of the time needed to know not only the Scriptures and prayer, but also keep in mind all types, kinds of adultery, sin, and even signs of witches ... It was at this time becomes a mnemonic secret area of expertise.A person capable to teach others to remember all of the most important, it is very highly regarded at the time.It is unlikely that the Catholic priests of that era have read or heard about these mnemonics as a memory palace road or Cicero.They came up and used a similar technique called memory theaters.In the imagination created a room with four walls, each of which are located on several levels with a variety of places.Filling these "theaters", memorizing all the priests they need religious information.Giulio Camillo went further and created a real theater of memory, built of wood, which was presented to the French monarch.There could enter two people: myself and King Camillo, where the governor explained how to remember anything.
The famous Matteo Ricci?
famous medieval Catholicism desire to "give" to their "true" faith of the peoples professing other religions.One of Catholic missionaries in China of the XVI century was a Jesuit Matteo Ricci.It was the most educated man of his time: a mathematician and cartographer, the translator, who managed to establish the first permanent cultural relations between the Chinese society and the Christian Europe.In addition, the history of its name is preserved and because of brilliant mnemonic abilities, thanks to which he became the first, and for many years the only European who managed to survive in China's exam for high public office.
Ten years Ricci, who took the name of China's Li Ma-tou, not only managed to learn the Chinese language, and several regional dialects, but the pass is very wise and learned man.In this he was helped not only an excellent education, but also ownership of the Jesuit mnemonics, he taught Chinese.Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci built the basis of the volume of material needed to remember.In complex cases, the building may consist of a plurality of different height and size structures interconnected.Ricci thought that for better memory can be used not only palaces, but various bureaucratic institutions and churches, ornate gazebos and public buildings.It is in this "composite" memory palace he proposed to his Chinese students to put the images and concepts necessary to remember.The Chinese took advantage of his proposed methodology, but the Catholic faith is not passed.It should be noted that modern Buddhists revere Matteo Ricci as the patron god of all watchmakers - Li Ma-tou.
What is the method?
Regardless of how this is called mnemonics - Technical support images or locations, the method of loci, or matrices, memory palace or palaces of the mind, the basis of its effectiveness is always the same.Man creates in his mind the image of the familiar and emotionally intimate space, it does not matter whether it is a room in a student hostel or the Knights' Hall of the Hermitage, office worker or a loved one level computer game or DooM Heroes of Might and Magic.The actual information that you need to remember is transformed into vibrant associative images placed in a re-created in the imagination of the person who is familiar and emotionally pleasant space.When you need to remember a certain fact, I remember where you put it, and craps in a mental journey through the memory palace, his room or the level of a computer game.
mnemonic techniques such as memory palace or the method of loci, using the conversion of memorized information and facts into vivid visual images, placed and associated with specific points emotionally meaningful and familiar space.As a result of intelligent manipulation of the brain creates new neural connections and associations between the information that you need to remember to continue to play, and the image of a place.Thereby resulting imagery visualization and elaboration of associative links developing human memory.
How to build a memory palace?
If you need to remember and maintain, and have quick access to the boring and volume information, you can build your own "intellectual palaces."In the beginning, only mastering this technique, it is best limited to a small and very familiar location, such as a private bathroom.So, what to do to "build" your own memory palace?The technique is simple, here are the basic steps:
1. Decide with your memory palace.At first, in order to expand the memories can last a desk and bookcase.If not enough, you can use the rest of the pieces of furniture and space.Instead of the room you can "build" your facts along the way to school or work.Memory Palace or locus method works best, allowing you to place a greater number of memorized information when reproduced in the imagination space of realistic and detailed.
2. routed.By creating your own "mental" Palace, it is important to consider the way of your movement on it.If you want to remember information in a very specific order, and the route of movement has to be very clear and simple desirable.The easiest way to use imagination in the same way that there is in reality.For example, entering the room in the first place you see a TV, a sofa and then, and only then - the workplace.
3. Choose storage.A very important step, as when using a technique (the palace of memory / mind) you will assign to these places all the necessary figures, facts and names.It is worth remembering that one thing can be applied one thought otherwise possible confusion, and the method will be useless.It is desirable that the objects were markedly different from each other, so it will be easier to remember.
4. Remember: the memory palace - a technique works effectively only if you know you created the palace, like the five fingers, and remember by heart all its parts.Those who practice this method, it is recommended to draw a diagram of the mental storage and mark on it the places where information is stored.Verifying a virtual image with a picture of your diagram, you can check how well you are tied to a subject.
How to use it?
But all preparatory stages are passed, and finally ready to remember your memory palace.Methods of its content is quite simple: you have to fill out a small amount of information each item.The higher performance - the better.Imagine the smell, color, texture and texture of each item, put it this or that emotional coloring.If you have to remember a large amount of connected information, association, place items in sequence, linking them together.The more extravagant and even absurd, you will use the keys and images - the better.For example, the White Bear in boots size 6 Maximum helps you easily remember the brand and model of the new supercar to see the concern.
Instead of conclusion
should not hope that the memory palace - it's an easy and quick way to prepare for the exam, or public speaking.In fact, this technique is available, through which you can really improve memory.Here are just watching and have a regular, permanent training own imagination and different types of memory.You can start small - from your desk or room.The main thing is that every memory of "lying" in its place, because then it will be easy to find.The ancients said that the road by walking, so maybe time to go?