Don has always fascinated people - a broad and powerful, with many tributaries.He devoted a great number of verses and poems, as well as the Yenisei.Although there is no question what the river is longer - Don or the Yenisei, still can not compare them - each in its own beautiful and each has its place in Russian literature.
Don addition, there are other names.In the days of ancient Greece, it was called Tanais or Girgis.Ancient kypchaki called Don - Ten.The word "Don" means "many channels" or "river with varying channel."
whence and where the river empties into the Don
used to be that Don originates in the lake, Ivan, but as it turned out, flow from the reservoir into the river this is not happening.This is the source of Don Novomoskovsk, there is even a set architectural composition "The source of the Don."But because of the proximity of the river flowing to the reservoir Shatskikh, many believe that it is the source of it, but it's not.
River catchment area inferior only to the Volga, Danube, Dnieper and Kama, although a relatively small length of the Don - 1870 km.The power and beauty of the Don sung in many literary works, as well as the Yenisei.The question arises: how long the river - Don or the Yenisei?The correct answer - the Yenisei.But compare these two rivers is not possible, each is unique and leaves a lasting impression.
in a river empties into the sea Don?In the Sea of Azov.The riverbed in Rostov-on-Don forms a wide delta, an area of 540 square kilometers.From it leaves a lot of duct Large Topsy-Turvy, Dead Donets Big Tower and others.
discussed in more detail below, where the river empties into the Don.The diagram shows how much the river empties into it.
Don - lowland river with a wide flood plain, it has a high threshold and flows slowly.Figure smooth longitudinal profile, the average gradient is 0.1 ppm.The width of the lower reaches of the Don is 15 km away.
right bank of the river has a steep slope.The left bank is low-lying and flat.At the bottom of the river you can find the accumulation of alluvium.The bed with lots of shallow sandy shoals.
water regime of the river Don
a river catchment area is large enough, but its water content is relatively low.This is due to the fact that Don flows through the steppe and forest steppe zone.The main role for the river plays a snow food, which accounts for nearly 70%, rain and groundwater - is small.Like most of the rivers of the zone, Don has a high spring tide, during the rest of the year - the low water period.
Throughout the river water level ranges from 8 m to 13 m.
average flow Don is 2 l / s / km² (900m³ / c).
In November and December, Don freezes.Freeze lasts from 30 days in the downstream and up to 140 days in the top.
characteristic feature of the river is that the high water passes in the form of two waves.The first wave - the "cold".In the course of the river reach downstream of meltwater.The second wave - "warm", and it brings water from the upper part of the river.
use of the river of human activities
Don River plays an important role in the economy of the country.To understand how this river is so remarkable, it is enough to remember where the river empties into the Don.For nearly 1600 km from the mouth of the river is navigable.City Liski is located 1355 km from the confluence of the Don to the Azov Sea, in this way always possible to meet the court.
In 1952 was built the Volga-Don canal.It was dug near the town of Kalach, because in this place the bend of the River Don to the Volga close to the minimum distance - 80 km.The canal was ready after 4 years after construction began, no such facility in the world was not so quickly put into operation.The length of the Volga-Don canal was 101 km and made it possible to release several seas: the Baltic, Black, Azov, Caspian and White.
near Voronezh is Novovoronezh nuclear power plant, commissioned in 1967 Rostov NPP was built in 2001 and it is located near the town of the same name.
On Don Reservoir was built - Tsimlyanskoe.There is Tsimlyanskoe HPP.In addition, the water of the hydrological object used to irrigate farmland Volgograd and Rostov regions.
flora and fauna of the river Don
floodplain marshes, meadows, dense mixed forests located along the Don River.Where it originates where it falls and can be seen on the banks of the river?In its entirety, you can meet a lot of flora: sedge, bulrush, Potentilla, willow, willow, birch, krushinnik, alder and others. The representatives of fauna are very diverse in their species composition.Amphibians: Frogs and newts.Reptiles: the red-and-eared turtle grass snake, the viper.Mammals: weasel, beaver, mink, otter, bats, muskrats.Birds: heron, Warbler, storks, crows, snipe, duck.
Throughout the Don River found about 70 species of fish.Some are threatened with extinction due to human activity.The most common are: bream, rudd, crucian carp, bleak, pike, burbot.Rare: catfish, sturgeon, beluga, sturgeon.
It is worth noting that recently established strict control over endangered species of fish.For catching rare species fines imposed on violators.In addition, the fish are grown in nurseries, which subsequently produced at will.
Ecological problems of the Don River
question about the environmental problem of the river every year is becoming more urgent.The most acute problem of the cleansing water from household waste, oil spills, which were formed as a result of tanker accidents.Distribution of blue-green algae is also a negative impact on the ecological state of the river, resulting in endangered are some species of fish and plants.
The water level decreases as a result of irrational use.
Recently, projects have been established to address pressing problems relating to water of rivers, including the Don.Azov Sea (where the river empties into the Don) also has a number of problems: contamination of water, disappearance of some fish species and a decrease in water level - shallowing.