Plato was a disciple of the ancient Greek sage Socrates and his philosophy took a lot from the teacher.Last call your own method of knowledge maevtikoy that can be roughly translated as "obstetrics".Midwife helps the mother to give birth to a child.The body of the child has already been formed, and the midwife only helps to ensure that he was born.When applied to knowledge, on the site of the kid acts truth, which we known in advance, because it is - comes from the world of ideas.But as our soul is under the influence of the material mind, efforts are needed - and leading questions mudretsa- "midwife" to the human mind "begat" and actually remembered what has been known before.Objective idealism of Plato is based on the teachings of Socrates maevtiki and develops it.
First of all, the philosopher formulated the doctrine of the eternal and primary with regard to the material world the realm of ideas, entities.Before you do, for example, a table, a master already has in mind the idea of certain things, having a flat horizontal surface, towering above the ground.And no matter what kind of thing to do master (rickety, small, large, simple and beautifully inlaid, on four legs or on one).The main thing is that everyone who looks at this subject, said that it was - a table, not a lamp, amphora, etc.That is, the objective idealism of Plato assumes the primacy of ideas on specific things.
in the mountainous nature of the world remains forever.They are there before finding expression in the amorphous matter, become things, and after these things are old and break down, fall into oblivion.No matter how hard we imagine that the essence of the iPod or the nuclear reactor existed prior to their inventors, objective idealism of Plato argues that the way it is, "Eidos", essentially embodied just when we are "willing to bear" them.Therefore, they are objective, indestructible and bessmetny while things - only the emanation, imperfect and perishable shadow of the true reality.
man, according to Plato, being ambivalent.On the one hand, his body is part of the material world, and on the other, it is - the subject and the spiritual essence comes from a higher realm.Looking at an object, we, first of all, fix in his mind "Eidos".Looking at the two cats, the human mind immediately grasps their affinity (despite the fact that one - small and black, and the second - a big, red-haired and in general, not the female, and the cat).In our mind, as the objective idealism of Plato, save the form and concepts by which people recognize the essential among disparate mass of concrete objects.
Platonism found their followers in the philosophy and theory of knowledge not only in the ancient world, but also in the Middle Ages, and even in modern times.Sensual method of understanding the material world, Plato considered inauthentic, because the perception of a particular thing does not transmit sensations to us its essence.To judge something based on ideas, it's like blind men feeling the elephant, one would say that this column, the second - that the hose, and the third - that the rough wall.It is necessary to descend from the general to the particular, and this method is called deduction.Therefore idealism in philosophy assumes that the primary of the Spirit, which produces a visible material world, that is a kind of universality, creating specific.
Thus, true knowledge - is to work with ideas.Operating with the entities and the establishment of links between them by comparison and analogy is called "dialectic."Plato used the image of a man sitting in front of a wall and watched as someone behind him carries some items.He tries the shadows cast on a wall, guess what it is.This is our knowledge.The philosopher believed that the objects of the material world are not true, they are the "shadow" of the essence, since the substance in which the entity is embodied, distort it.The best way to comprehend the mind forever, but the idea of the invisible eye, than based on the study of individual objects.Since then, every idealist philosopher is (in the perception of the general public) are far from the true reality of the man floating in the world of their own imaginations.