black box of the aircraft (flight recorder, recorder) - a device that is used in railway, water transport and aviation information recording systems on board, talks crew and others. If a transport happened any event, these data are used forfind out why.
first operational flight data recorder appeared in 1939.French hangover and Yusseno constructed light beam oscilloscope captures every flight parameters (speed, altitude, etc.).This happened by the appropriate deflection mirror reflecting a beam of light on photographic film.According to one version and the name "black box of the aircraft" (see photo. Below), because his body was painted in this color in order to protect from the glare of film.In 1947, the enterprising inventors organized the "French Society of measuring instruments."Over time, the company has become quite a major manufacturer of equipment and joined the group "Safran".
In 1953, Australian scientist David Warren, who participated in the investigation of the crash of the liner "Havilland", put forward the idea that the existence of records of negotiations of the crew would very much help in such a case.His proposed mechanism combined the voice and parametric recorders, as well as the use of magnetic tape for recording.Registrar Warren had asbestos wrapper and packaged in a steel case.Perhaps here we have a different definition of "aircraft black box" - an object of unknown or unprincipled internal structure that performs certain functions.
prototype device, David introduced in 1956.He came up with a bright color and a black box in an airplane.Four years later, the Australian government ordered the installation of recorders on all available aircraft.Soon other countries also followed suit.
black box of the aircraft, a photo which you can see in the article, is not classified as complex devices.This is the usual array of controller and flash memory chips.It is not much different from a standard SSD-drive notebook.However, flash memory is used in the recorder recently.Now most of the aircraft is equipped with older models, which are recording on a tape or wire.
There are two types of registers: the operational and emergency.The first of them is protected and is used for daily monitoring of the vehicle.Staff rail, water and air transport reads information from the storage system after each flight.Then, the resulting data is analyzed for the presence of harmful actions of the crew during operation.For example:
- does not exceed the maximum pitch or roll, the allowed by the manufacturer;
- does not exceed the overload on the takeoff / landing;
- does not exceed the time on vzlёtnyh or afterburner, etc.
Also, this information allows you to monitor the production of the resource of the aircraft and for timely maintenance work to reduce the failure rate of transport equipment, and improve the safety of flights.
emergency recorder has a very reliable protection.In accordance with the requirements of modern standard TSO-C124 it provides data integrity for half an hour continuous combustion under shock overloads in 3400 g, I stay at a depth of 6 kilometers in 30 days, and the static overload of 2 tons up to 5 minutes.For comparison with the previous generation recorders tapes shock overload maintained only 1000 g, and the duration of combustion to 15 minutes.To facilitate the search for Emergency recorders equipped with sonar pinger and beacons.
Color black box in an airplane, we will discuss below, but for now let's talk about the materials from which it is made.Recorders produce alloyed iron or titanium alloys.In any case, it is heat-resistant and high-strength material.While most of the safety of registrars provide their location in the body of the aircraft.
What color is the black box of the aircraft?
flight recorder usually red or orange.Now you know what color the black box of the aircraft, and it is understandable that the name has nothing to do with the real color.The bright color was made to facilitate the search.
What parameters are recorded?
recorders are constantly being improved.The first black box was read only 5 parameters: speed, time, vertical acceleration, altitude and course.They recorded the stylus on disposable metal foil.The last phase of evolution registrar refers to the 90 th year, when introduced into operation solid carriers.Modern recorders are able to record up to 256 parameters.Here are some of them:
- residue fuels.
- instantaneous fuel consumption.
- speed pitch.
- air pressure.
- angle of heel.
- voltage network.
- position of the control handle of the motor.
- side overload.
- deflection flaps.
- deflection wheel.
- deviation stabilizer.
- aileron deflection.
- stroke crosshead control pitch, and roll rate.
- Progress helm.
- engine speed.
- engine speed.
- vertical and lateral loads.
- true height.
- barometric height.
- Airspeed etc.
black box of the aircraft is located at the rear of the aircraft.On board there are several recorders.Reserve models are needed in the event of severe damage or inability to detect key.
Previously voice and parametric recorders were divided: the first was installed in the cockpit, and the second - at the tail of the aircraft.However, due to the fact that the car was destroyed in an accident more aft, both the recorder were mounted in the tail of the aircraft.
black box of the aircraft: decoding
This myth is the same as the color of the recorder in its name.Remember decoding of black boxes, the plane crashed impossible.You ask why?Yes, because the recorded data is not encrypted, and the word "transcript" is used in the same context as that of the journalists, manufacturing recording the interview.They write lyrics, listening to the recording of the recorder.So does the committee of experts, recording data in readable form and analysis.There's no encryption: data protection from prying is not provided, the information is available for perusal at any airport.Also there is no protection of data against modification, because the recorder is designed to identify the causes of aircraft accidents and to reduce their number in the future.In the end, for suppressing or distorting the real causes of accidents on political or even some reason, you can make a statement about the serious damage to registrars and the inability to read the information.
However, even under severe injuries (approximately 30% of accidents), the black box of the crashed plane is still possible to reconstruct.Fragments of the tape glued and treated with a special mixture, and the surviving chips fluster and connect to the reader.This is a fairly complex procedure carried out in special laboratories and time-consuming.
Are there alternatives?
Now you know what the black box of the aircraft.Until now, this device is not considered 100% reliable.Are there any alternatives?
At the moment there are not any, but engineers are constantly working to improve existing models.In the near future they plan to transfer data from the black boxes in real-time or on an air base or the satellite.
Captain "Boeing-777" Steve Abdou believes to send real-time data required expensive satellite communication.But if you send the exercise with 4-5 minute intervals, it will significantly reduce the cost of technology and increase the profitability of its application.As the number of satellites in the world is increasing annually, the flight data storage on the remote device - this is the most likely alternative to a long and laborious search for decrypting data.
also plans to have a floating installation of shot recorders.The collision of the aircraft with an obstacle will fix special sensors, which subsequently launch a bailout parachute recorder.This principle is already being used in car airbags.