social life - the concept of multi-faceted.However, the progress of the Russian society, as we see from the history, depends on the quality of the creative in its specific intellectual process.What is institutionalization?This organization developed civil society passing standardized social processes.The tool developed by the company are the intellectual education - institutions with a fixed circuit operation, staffing structure, job descriptions.Any sphere of public life - political, economic, legal, informational, cultural - in order to progress the company is subject to generalization and streamline the process.
Examples of institutionalization is, for example, parliament, created on the basis of assembly of citizens;School, crystallized from the work of outstanding artists, painters, dancers, thinker;religion, taking its origins from the preaching of the prophets.Thus, institutionalization - is, of course, inherently, - ordering.
Held it as a substitute for many individual behaviors one - generalized regulated.If we talk about design elements of this process, developed by the sociology of social norms, rules, status and role - it is the institutionalization of the existing mechanism, resolving pressing social needs.
should be recognized that a truly reliable economic foundation provided institutionalization in Russia in the new century.Growth of production.Stabilize the political system is "working" of the Constitution, a functioning separation of legislative, executive, judiciary, there is freedom provide the basis for such development.
Historically, the institutionalization of the Russian government took the following steps:
- first (1991-1998.) - The transition from the Soviet regime.
- II (1998-2004.) - Change of the oligarchical model of society to the state-capitalist.
- third (2005-2007.) - Developing effective institutions of society.
- fourth (since 2008) - a stage characterized by the effective participation of human capital.
In Russia there are elitist model of democracy, limiting the number of people actively participating in the political process, which corresponds to Russian mentality, the alleged dominance of state interests over the interests of the individual.The fundamental importance of civil society support policy elite.
should be recognized that the development of deterrent is a traditional, educated in the "dashing" 90 years of the legal nihilism of the population.But society introduced new principles of democracy.The institutionalization of power in Russia has led to the fact that political institutions are divided not only power, but also on the institutions participating.At present, the role of the latter.They have a directional impact on certain aspects of the progress of society.
The sphere of influence of the government is the country's entire population.To the main political institutions include the State itself, civil society.The peculiarity of Russian institutionalization is its styling with the interests of the country.It is not always effective here is blind to import Western institutions so institutionalized in Russian - a creative process.
institutionalization and social institutions
Social institutions and institutionalization are important as a universal tool joint efforts of many people living in different regions of the federation for the optimal allocation of resources and satisfaction of Russian society.
For example, the institute realizes the power of the state to meet the needs of the maximum number of citizens.Institute of Law regulates the relationship between people and the state, as well as individuals and society as a whole.Institute of faith helps people to have faith, the meaning of life, the truth.
These institutions serve as the foundation of civil society.They are generated by the needs of society, which is inherent in mass manifestations, the reality of existence.
From a formal point of view of a social institution can be represented as a "role-based", based on the roles and status of the various members of society.At the same time, acting in a federal state, the Russian institutes to gain maximum legitimacy are doomed to combine the maximum set of traditions, customs, moral and ethical standards.Regulation and control of public relations carried out by institutions performing legal and social norms that are tailored to these traditions and customs.
to the Russian mentality is very important to achieve maximum efficiency reinforce the formal organization in the operation of an informal institution.
hallmarks of the institutions that help in a variety of social life of the country to determine their presence, many are permanent types of interactions, regulation as a job, and the order of their performance, the presence in the state of "narrow" specialists trained in the profile.
What social institutions can be called a major in today's society?The list is known: family, health, education, social protection, business, church, mass media.Institutsionizirovany they?As you know, each of these areas there is an appropriate government ministry, which is the "tip" of the respective branch, which covers regions.The regional system of executive power to organize appropriate controls, is controlled directly by the performers as well as the dynamics of the relevant social phenomena.
Political parties and their institutionalization
Institutionalization of political parties in the current interpretation of it began after the Second World War.On its structure we can say that it includes the institutionalization of political and legal.Political organizes and optimizes the efforts of citizens to establish political parties.Legal establishes the legal status and activities.Important issues are also a problem of financial transparency of party activities and the rules of its interaction with business and government.
Regulatory generalized set the legal status of all the parties (in the state and other organizations), and social status of each individual (reflecting resource base and role in society).
activities and the status of modern parties settled law.In Russia, the problem of the institutionalization of parties allows a special federal law "On political parties".According to him the party is formed in two ways: either the constituent congress of the transformation movement (public organization).
state regulates the activities of the parties, namely the rights and duties, functions, participation in elections, financial activities, relationships with government agencies, international and ideological activities.
restrictive requirements are: the all-Russian character of the party, the number of members (more than 50 thousand.), Non-ideological, non-religious, non-national nature of the organization.
representation of parties in the legislature is provided by associations of elected deputies in them (factions).
legislation also defined the legal personality of parties: administrative, civil, constitutional and legal.
Institutionalization of conflict
turn to history.Institutionalization of the conflict as a social phenomenon finds its origins in the era of the birth of capitalist relations.Depriving the peasants of land by large landowners, the transformation of their social status in the proletarians, conflicts emerging bourgeois class, and does not want to leave their positions of nobility.
In terms of the institutionalization of conflict management - a resolution of two conflicts: the industrial and political.Conflict of employers and workers is regulated by the Institute of collective agreements with the unions, taking into account the interests of hired workers.The conflict for control of society is permitted mechanism suffrage.
Thus, the institutionalization of the conflict is a safety tool for social consensus and balances system.
Public opinion and its institutionalization
Public opinion is the product of the interaction of different sectors of the population, political parties, social institutions, social networks and media.Dynamics of public opinion has increased considerably thanks to the Internet, interactivity, flash mobs.
Institutionalization of public opinion created a specific organization, studying public opinion rating in predicting the outcome of the election.These organizations collect, study existing and form a new public opinion.It should be recognized that such a study is often biased and based on biased samples.
Unfortunately, structured informal economy distorts the concept of "institutionalization of public opinion."In this case, the judgment and the wishes of the majority of people do not find realization in the real politics of the state.Ideally, between the will of the people and implementing it should be straight and clear communication through Parliament.Elected officials are required to serve the public opinion by making the necessary operational legal acts.
Social Work and institutionalization
At the end of XIX - early XX century in Western society due to industrialization and involvement of the public in the production of a variety of groups arose Institute of Social Work.It was mostly about social benefits and assistance to the families of the workers.Nowadays social work acquired features reasonable enough altruistic assistance adapted to the conditions of life for people.
Social work depending on the subject of it is the state, public and mixed.Government agencies include the Ministry of social policy, its regional offices, local agencies that serve socially disadvantaged people.Assistance is provided to certain members of society.It is regular, full-time social workers carried out and based on the budget.Public as voluntary social work is performed by volunteers and often irregular.As you know, the institutionalization of social work is most effective when combined embodiment where coexist state and public its shape.
stages of institutionalization of the shadow economy
poetapen process of institutionalization.And all the stages of its passage - typical.The root cause of this process and at the same time it is the need to supply a basis for the implementation of which is necessary to organize the actions of people.Come paradoxical way.Consider the stages of institutionalization in the formation of such negative institute as a "shadow economy".
- I stage - the emergence of needs.Scattered financial transactions (such as flight of capital, cashing) of individual economic agents (since the 90s. The last century) acquired a wide and systematic.
- II stage - the formation of specific goals and their implementation serving ideology.The purpose can be, for example, be formulated as follows: "The creation of the economic system," invisible "to government control.Creating a climate in society where those in power have the right to permissiveness. "
- III stage - the creation of social norms and rules.These standards originally set rules governing the "closeness" of the power to control people ("Byzantine system of power").However, the "non-performing" social laws compel economic agents "to go under the roof of" illegitimate structures actually exercising a regulatory function, laws lost.
- IV stage - the emergence of standard features associated with the rules.For example, the function of "protection business" powerful people the security forces, the function of a legal cover for raiders, cashing Finance under fictitious contracts, the creation of budgetary funding in the system of "kickbacks."
- V stage - the practical application of rules and functions.Gradually creates a shadow converting centers are not advertised in the official press.They work with certain clients stable and lasting.The percentage of conversion of minimal, they successfully compete with the official Convert organizations.Another trend: the shadow wage, which amounts to 15-80%.
- VI stage - the creation of a system of sanctions to protect the criminal structure.Positions state officials privatized capital to service the business.They, these officials, the "rules", punishing for "defamation", for "moral damages."Controlled manually human rights bodies and taxation turned into a private "squad" powerful people.
- VII phase - the shadow of the power vertical.Officials turn their levers of power in the life of their business.Power Ministry and Prosecutor's Office is actually isolated from the function to protect the interests of the people.Judges, providing policy regional authorities and is "fed up" with it.
process of institutionalization, as we see, is versatile in terms of its basic stages.Therefore, it is essential that he be subjected to constructive and legitimate social interests of society.Institute of the shadow economy, worsening the quality of life of ordinary citizens, to be supplanted by the rule of law institution.
Sociology and institutionalization
Sociology studies society as a complex institutional system taking into account its social institutions and the relationships between them, relationships and communities.Sociology shows the society in terms of its internal mechanisms and dynamics of their development, the behavior of large groups of people and, in addition, the interaction of man and society.It provides and explains the essence of social phenomena and behavior of citizens, as well as collect and analyze primary sociological data.
Institutionalization of Sociology expresses the inner essence of this science, social ordering processes using statuses and roles, she aims to ensure the life of society.Therefore, there is a phenomenon: sociology itself falls under the definition of the institute.
Stages of Development Sociology
There are several stages in the development of sociology as a new world of science.
- first stage belongs to the 30-th of the XIX century, it is the allocation of the subject and method of the science by the French philosopher Auguste Comte.
- second - "time between" scientific terminology, the acquisition of skills of specialists, organization of scientific exchange of operational information.
- third - positioning themselves as part of the philosophy of "sociologists".
- fourth - creation of the sociological school and the organization of the first scientific journal "Sociological Yearbook."The largest merit belong to the French social scientist Emile Durkheim in the Sorbonne University.However, apart from this, the Department of Sociology was opened at Columbia University (1892)
- fifth stage, a kind of "recognition" of the state, was the introduction of sociological specialties in state professional rosters.Thus, society has finally recognized sociology.
In the 60 years the American sociology of capitalist received significant investments.As a result, the number of American sociologists increased to 20 thousand, and the names of periodical publications sociological - to 30. Science has taken an adequate position in society.
sociology in the USSR revived after the October Revolution in 1968 - at Moscow State University.Soda department of sociological research.In 1974 came the first periodical in 1980 in the Professional Register of the country introduced the sociological profession.