Everyone who speak Russian, easily finds words such as, for example, "talk", "food", "blizzard", and can not simply define them, but to use them in the correct format in the context.Such words are called public, or of public lexicon.But to explain what "bayat", "brashno", "vyalitsa", can not everyone knows these words only a small circle of people.However, such non-literary language in conversation and most people do not consume.
dialect words: determination
It is well-known, used in literature and in the speech of people, regardless of their place of residence and profession of the words are the basis of the Russian language, yet remaining expressions are not public - they are used only in certain circles of the population.These include jargon specific and dialect words.In Russian they are called limited use of vocabulary.These words are divided into groups, each of which has its own characteristic.
Certain groups of the population, carriers of non-public lexicon, consist of a huge number of groups scattered over the expanse of the country and even abroad.Each of them in everyday life has its own special words, each divided by a certain feature: occupation, place of residence and social class.So what are called dialectal word?It is those that are used in certain areas.For example, in the Pskov region there is such a thing as severik on Baikal the same phenomenon called Barguzin, and on the Danube - Belozerov.Literature is a synonym of the word - the wind.
dialect words is part of the group at the location, and words related only to the human occupation of a professional group.But jargon it relates to certain sections of society.
Where common dialect vocabulary
In each area has its own specific words that are used only in this area.For example, in the south of the country can meet these interesting words: area, which means the bushes;Koszul that corresponds to the way the land.In the northern cities, you can also find interesting examples of dialect speech: Teplin, which means fire;lava - bridge and roe - plow.
Classification dialect expressions
In literary and book speech can be found so-called dialect - words that are essentially dialect, but have their word formation, grammar and phonetic features and belong to a particular dialect.Dialect is divided into 4 groups:
- Semantic dialect - is a group of words that in a certain dialect to use unorthodox sense.For example: a cloud - storm, order - wood, arrogant - a sudden.
- Ethnographic dialect called object or phenomenon peculiar to a particular population and unknown in other areas.As a rule, a dialectal word has synonyms in common speech, and determination it is possible to give only descriptively.For example: Plahtiy - skirt made of a piece of cloth, duleyka - wadded jacket, tonets - a thin pancake made from unleavened dough.
- Phrasebook dialect - is the immutable word combinations having a certain value in a particular area.For example: bored - bored fall withered - in the salt villages, something heavy and difficult - without the death of death.
Where are dialect words?
Examples of use of such expressions can be seen not only in conversation but also in literary works.Although, of course, raises the question of how, and most importantly, the extent to which such language can be used for artistic purposes.The theme of the work and the goals set by the author, it is determined what kind of dialect word can be used in a particular case.It may take into account a number of factors - this aesthetic ideals, and skill, and, of course described object.Indeed, sometimes it is using only conventional speech, impossible to convey all the color and character.For example, Tolstoy often enough to describe the peasants in his works using dialect words.Examples of their use can be found in the literature and Turgenev, he used them as inclusions and quotes that are quite clearly distinguished in the text.Moreover, such inclusion in its composition have commented that fully reveal their meaning, but without the literary context would not have such intensity.
Now the works of the authors of the villages also use dialect words, but usually does not indicate their importance, even if the words of a narrow application.Also, similar expressions can be found in newspaper essays, which is characterized by a certain character, his manner of speaking and the characteristic features of his life, it defines the area in which he lives.Given the fact that newspapers should carry weight in the exclusively literary speech, use of dialect should be as justified.For example: "I do not wonder Basil left a little present from oboch."It should also be noted that each of these unorthodox words should be explained to the reader, because no man reading a book, do not keep a dictionary of dialect words.
dialect as part of the vocabulary of the Russian language
If we talk about the dictionaries, the first mention of the dialect can be found in the "Explanatory Dictionary of Russian Language" VI Dal.This publication can be found 150 articles devoted to this very topic.Today is also the study of dialect is paid great attention, because they, along with archaisms, neologisms, loan words and phraseology, make up a significant part of the vocabulary of the mighty Russian language.And even though most of them are not used in everyday speech and writing, and serves only the passive part, without them it would be impossible to build a bright sayings or vivid description of an object or character.That is why the great writers so often resorted to dialect to give the brightness of the text.Returning to the lexicon, it should be noted that for the study of dialect words there is a whole science called dialectology.
This linguistic discipline studies the phonetic, grammatical, syntactic features of language units that are geographically fixed.Also, special attention was paid to the study of dialect in literature.Linguistics shared understanding of these words:
- broad approach, which tend to include commonly spoken dialect in literary speech;
- narrow approach, where all the set phrases and words used in artistic and journalistic publications.
Delving into the lexical structure of the Russian language, you understand how well the phrase "great and mighty."After dialect words from their classification and structure are just a small part of a huge system, for which created its own science.And the supply of most of these words is not persistent, it is updated and renewed.And this applies not only dialect, because the number of common words and obscheupotreblyaemyh also constantly increasing, which only emphasizes the power of the Russian language.