non-classical philosophy - a collection of various trends, schools, concepts that have emerged since the mid 19th century.This philosophy reflects the radical changes in society, which is subjected to Western Europe at the time.First of all, it is worth noting the French Revolution of 1789, which struck the first blow to the minds of people.Civil war and terror have led many thinkers of the time to reflect on the possibilities of science and reason.Some philosophers, such as Nietzsche and Schopenhauer, began to talk about the ambiguity of progress, the irrationality of history and the relativity of truth.
20th century was marked for a person not only great achievements in science and art, but also a number of revolutions, wars, the collapse of the colonial system, the formation and collapse of the socialist system and the emergence of a large number of global problems that cast doubt on the existence of the human race.
war showed that the knowledge of science can be used to the detriment of mankind
All these processes could cause a departure from the classical perception of the world.Many scientists and thinkers revised sense of the human life changed a person's attitude toward religion and death.Philosophy began to change very quickly, there was a transition from the old to the new values.In the first place we were faced with new problems and ways to solve them.The philosophy of rationalism goes by the wayside, and almost completely replaced.The thinkers of that time began to pay more attention to the existence of man and his freedom.
non-classical philosophy is divided into several programs that are aimed at the complete rethinking of classical philosophy:
- Socio-critical program focused primarily on changes in society.This could include such exercises as post-Marxism and Marxism.
- Philosophical irrationalism (irrationalist tradition).Proponents of this trend can be called great thinkers such as Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and S. Kierkegaard.
- analytic program which is reviewing scientific rationalist different priorities and values.This program includes exercises such as analytic philosophy, pragmatism, positivism, postpositivism.
- Existential-anthropological program.It includes existentialism, psychoanalysis, phenomenology and hermeneutics.
process of disintegration of the classical model of philosophy took place against the background of profound changes in culture and society.Society is divided into two parts;One of the fights for scientific and technological progress, and the other opposes it.Thus formed two societies, perceived differently by scientific and technological progress - scientism and anti-scientism.
representatives scientism saw scientific progress as the highest value, and antistsientisty seen in science evil force that threatens all humanity.Today, science is not the only method of knowing the world, though it is considered the most important.That is why, probably, many philosophers are trying to re-understand the teachings of the East and find a hidden meaning in primitive religions.
modern non-classical philosophy - is a completely new stage in the development of all mankind.With the introduction of the new philosophy formed and new spiritual values and moral principles.