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Higher plants are distinguished from lower because their body is clearly differentiated organs.They are highly organized, are difficult arranged conducting systems and tissues.Diversity of no limit.

adapting to different environmental conditions, they were forced to form an unusual structure in its structure.Change, to modernize and to adapt certain parts of the body to get a better chance of a comfortable existence.Most of this was reflected on the roots of plants.

organs of higher plants

All of them can be divided into two groups:

  • ground;
  • underground.

The first should include stem, leaf, flower and fruit.The second - the root system with all its constituent elements.At first glance, mistakenly think that those quite a bit, because it's just root.The bodies of plants are quite difficult to organized structures, so the external simplicity is deceptive.This applies to all parts of the body.

Underground Authority root: root

types of plant roots may be different as the color and the shape, length, branching.In total, there are three main types of types of roots.The name of the following types of roots.

  1. Chief .This is the main axial root, leaving the deepest underground.As a rule, it is thicker than the other and longer.The origins of it takes from the embryonic root.It houses the main conductor and the suction zone, through which the material is transported in the stalk of the plant, and from the latter spread throughout the body.
  2. Subordinate .These structures depart directly from the main roots and branches apart, increasing the overall weight of the entire system.Their function as the main, are substances in the absorption and retention of the plants in the ground.
  3. Side .These elements - a thin hair-like roots extending from the adnexal structures.Their thickness is sometimes only one or two millimeters.Different types of roots vary in size, but that the total mass of the side is dominated by this indicator.

Thus, for terrestrial plants is characterized by three types of roots, which are generally organic combination form the whole system.

types of root systems

What types of roots, we found out.It remains to deal with the issue of systems formed by them.In total there are two main types.

  1. Rod .Typical class Monocots (cereals, lily, palm, etc.).The main distinguishing feature: the pronounced taproot and poorly - subordinate and side.
  2. fibrous .Typical class dicotyledonous plants (Rosaceae, cruciferous, legumes, etc.).A feature that has a root: root views expressed to the same degree.No main, as his subordinate and side branching suppress it, and formed a rugged overall structure.

More options root systems is not known.

Varieties of changes in the structure

We have seen what are the kinds of roots.But there are also their modified forms.That is, when the main, lateral and adventitious roots are transformed into a somewhat different form, helps plants to adapt to the different environmental conditions.

roots following types of changes:

  • roots;
  • clues;
  • stilted;
  • root tubers;
  • air;
  • root cones;
  • retractable;
  • roots-props;
  • breathing;
  • root-suckers.

For some tropical species allocated some narrowly specific transformation of the root system.We consider the most interesting and popular option.

Aerial roots

plants with aerial roots - it is the inhabitants of these places where the soil is poor in moisture and oxygen.It can be saline land or excessively acidic (alkaline).Therefore, such individuals are categorically not enough oxygen.In order to capture and absorb it in addition, they have adapted as follows.

Their lateral roots above ground, and thus is able to absorb moisture and oxygen directly from the air.Watching the plants with modified roots is very unusual, and sometimes even frightening.If the aerial roots formed too much, the tree looks very voluminous, bushy and some little fairy.

In ancient times, plants with similar characteristics attributed to various magical properties because they looked really mystical.Representatives include the following types:

  • orchids, including decorative houseplants;
  • certain types of figs;
  • metrosideros;
  • mangroves;
  • vines;
  • monstera and others.

stilted roots

Obviously, the support - this is the main function performed by root.Types of roots that are modified appendages basic structures can also be used for this purpose.A typical example is stilted roots.They are formed in plants grown:

  • in a dense and viscous sludge;
  • coastal zones (bands), which are immersed in water;
  • in sandy soil.

They are very important, because its growth begins to stalk.This way the body is strengthened by the ground.Numerous solid and durable stilted appendages generally give the plant stability and promote a dense rooting.

Examples of organisms, which are characterized by such structures can cause these:

  • maize;
  • mangroves;
  • pandanus;
  • Malay wood;
  • certain types of palm trees;
  • Avicenna;
  • nipa;
  • Rhizophora;
  • cork and others.

In general, plants with roots similar to the form of the body, like standing on stilts.Sometimes they look like a tent, in other cases, just the impression of a powerful multi-faceted barrel.


There are a lot of amazing things that tells us the science biology.Types of roots of some plants so absurd and unreal, it's hard to imagine their naturalness.

For example, there are varieties of these bodies, such as columnar, or roots-props.Their main purpose - to ensure the plant is not only additional support and stability, but also the air power.Like the air, they are also capable of fixing atmospheric oxygen from the air.

Thus, it appears that the pillared modifications - a combination of air and stilted roots.Plants, which are characterized by such structures is:

  • ficus elastic;
  • banyan;
  • some tropical trees.

Features of formation of roots in the fact that they arise from horizontal branches grow and then down to the ground.Having reached it, take root and become more reliable support.And as there are above ground, and the second function - oxygen uptake - operate successfully.


This change is known to everyone, because that is what we grow in suburban areas.Plants with such structures most juicy and nutritious root.Types roots of this change can be so:

  • tubers;
  • roots.

root tubers are formed from lateral roots and paranasal.They accumulate a large amount of nutrients that allows the plant to speed up vegetation and feel safer when the occurrence of adverse conditions.Examples of plants:

  • artichoke;
  • nasturtium;
  • potatoes;
  • artichoke;
  • begonia;
  • Caladium;
  • diaskareya;
  • lily and others.

Root vegetables, even though they contain the title the word "fruit", but these bodies have no relation.This main root thickened plants, in which the accumulation of a large mass of nutrients, pigments, vitamins, and so on.

Examples of such plants are the most popular:

  • celery;
  • carrots;
  • beets;
  • parsley;
  • chicory;
  • radish;
  • Pasternak and others.

These crops are one of the most popular crops.They are prepared, used for the preparation of medicaments prepared from these vitamins.

What does the root of the plant?

answer to this question has already been raised in the article.It remains only to summarize and generalize all the above, to make it clear answer to the question: "What does the root of the plant?"

  1. anchor, or reinforcement.
  2. Implementation of the absorption and transport of mineral compounds and water.Modifications
  3. serve to lock and store nutrients.
  4. Root is a body of breeding vegetatively.
  5. It is the formation of vitamins, hormones, pigments.
  6. root enters into a symbiotic relationship with bacteria, fungi.

specific modification of the roots are used for different functional adaptations.About them we have said in the consideration of each specific example.