What are the excuses in the Russian language?Prepositions of place , time and derivative .How to write prepositions

What excuse can answer any student, this part of the speech, children begin studying the second grade, and what are the pretexts learn throughout the school curriculum.However, in the conversation begin to use them from the very first notes, because they allow you to build a relationship of words from each other so that the statement made sense and was offering.Although an excuse - it is the invariable part, which is not acting as a member of the sentence, but rather can be linked to those for well-formed utterances his presence necessary and irreplaceable.Therefore, to properly set the speech just need to know what are the excuses, how they affect the end of words, which are associated with, and how to use them.After all, this little piece forms the sense of dependency and relationship between words.The dictionary definition of a humanitarian pretext of the Russian language goes something like this: it is the invariable part of speech, which is the official word, formalized submission of case forms of names to another word that expresses the attitude to the subjects about their actions.

main functions

Like all function words, prepositions are not used on their own, they are always associated with a noun or other word used as such that makes it impossible to define this item as part of the speech, but they are among their number.In some cases, it can determine a pretext antonymous and synonyms, and a pair of shades, so simply pick the right combination of words to express.

example: to school - out of school;up lesson - after the lesson;when the garden - from kindergarten - about kindergarten;due to negligence - because of carelessness.

What are the excuses

All excuses are divided into temporal, spatial, causal and target.Some of them can be used with one nominative nouns and the other words are used with in different cases.For example:

  • to her friend, the school - D. n. (To whom? For what?);
  • thanks to a friend, thanks to school - D. n. (Thanks to whom? So?);
  • at seven o'clock - V. n. (What?);
  • in the park - P. n. (What?).

The example shows that the preposition "in" can be used with words in different cases.Such pretexts as in, about, from, under, through, from, to, without , can have a huge amount of value.In Russian they are called derivative prepositions.

If the excuse is formed of independent parts of speech and use only one of case, it is called a derivative.For example:

- around the house, original form of an excuse - an adverb around;

- for an hour, original form of the preposition - noun for, used with preposition «B»;

- thanks to the help, original form of excuse - gerund .

structural differences

Along with all differences Russian prepositions also shared by their structure.Namely:

  • simple, consisting of a single word.As a rule, one-and two-step.Non-derivative and some derivatives prepositions: at, to, under, over.
  • difficult or pairs, in fact, is a kind of simple prepositions: because, from the and others.
  • Components that are prepositional-case combinations: in, along, in part, in respect of, depending and so on.

discharges meaningfully

As an excuse is just a part of the binder, own values, he can not have, but merely defines the grammatical relationships between nouns, use in oblique cases, and in other words.In other words, it depends on the lexical meaning of the word to which it is attached, but it can transmit a variety of shades of circumstantial connection between the words themselves.

All the excuses of the Russian language such discharges are divided into:

  • or spatial prepositions of place: from, in, to, from, in, under, out of, around, to, around, around. example: lives in the city;It works in a factory;running around the house.
  • Temporary or prepositions time: before, after, at, on, to, with, prior to, during. example: half an hour;jogging in the morning;walk before bedtime.
  • Causal: by, for, from the evil effect, thanks to, on occasion, because of, as a result. example: blushed with shame;He broke the vase with evil;careless mistake.
  • prepositions indicating purpose: sake, for, in, for and others.For example: tell a joke;speech on the occasion;to go on vacation.
  • Object, define and indicate on what the subject is directed action: about, about, with, about, concerning, about and others.For example: miss his daughter;learn about ratings.
  • prepositions indicating the course of action: s, without, of. example: play with pleasure;laughing heartily.

classification derived prepositions

Depending on the parts of speech, which is formed of an excuse, they are divided into such categories.Tom, what are the excuses that have occurred from other parts of speech in the school curriculum given many hours, and rightly so, because it is very important to know what kind of relationship they can form words, and how to use them in speech and in writing.

  • adverbial prepositions.Formed from adverbs and often point to the spatial and temporal relationships of words in a sentence.These are excuses as near, instead of along, around, behind, through, over, among other .
  • denominative prepositions.The original form - a noun in any case.Typically, these prepositions expressed and adverbial object relationships: result, like, on the side in continuation, since at least at parts.
  • Verbal prepositions are formed from the forms of verbs, gerunds and express all sorts of circumstantial relations: except through despite, despite later and others.

Spelling prepositions

knowledge of what are the excuses are just as important as their spelling.Therefore, one of the main topics of the curriculum related to prepositions, serves spelling.The very first rule, which is familiar to children is: "prepositions with other words are written separately."In order to properly determine whether the official word, between pretense and related words you can put a question or addition.

example: on (what?), Or the sea on (Black) Sea.

In high school, the children are introduced to derivatives pretexts, formed from adverbs.And then the most important thing - to determine whether this part of the sentence adverb or is it an excuse.To do this, you need to determine whether there is a noun in a sentence in an oblique case and how it related to the controversial part.

example: look around (adverb) or look around you (excuse).

There is a rule: "To make sure that the word in a sentence is a pretext, not the other parts of speech, it should be replaced synonymous pretext.Thus the meaning must not be changed. "Here is a list of interchangeable auxiliary prepositions:

  • due (due by reason);
  • like (like);
  • about (v, v);
  • due (due).

example: Because of bad weather we went for a walk.Because of bad weather we went for a walk.


Separately written such excuses: for, during, throughout, in conclusion, in order to avoid, in fact, unlike .

should also be noted that the pair or spliced ​​prepositions such as because, out of, because of over-sake, is over, are only written with a hyphen.

example: from behind the clouds the sun came out.From under the cat jumped out of the cabinet.

There are also prepositions, spelling that should be easy to remember.Namely: near (without the soft sign) and through (with a soft sign).

use of prepositions with the cases

It is important to know what are the pretexts from plagues, as often it is due to the preposition can be properly identified, in which nominative eating this or that word, which is very important for the correct spelling.It should be noted that the nominative case of nouns prepositions are not used, only indirect:

  • with genitive - not around, for, from, from, from, to,
  • with dative - to, thanks, according contrary, defiance, meet at;
  • with accusative - through, about, though, through, in, on, under, over;
  • with Instrumental - over, before, between, over, under, c;
  • a prepositional - oh, if, in, on.

This table is made up of prepositions based derivatives and non prepositions which in each case may be used only with one or more case of a noun.

Instead of conclusion

actually learn this subject in the school years is not so thorough and complicated rules of spelling and education prepositions from other parts of speech here quite a bit.The main objective is that we should learn to distinguish from other elements of an excuse, and know how to use it properly.That this will not only competently to build word of the sentence, but also to be able to write them without confusing endings.