totality of human knowledge lies in the field of science and beyond.In order to manage the progress necessary to confidently determine the properties of the scientific component of the comprehensive knowledge.
At the same time, one should not underestimate the knowledge that lies outside science.
What knowledge should be regarded as scientific?
criteria of scientific research in the world today are not consistent.Number of copyright concepts, often opposed to each other, very large.Therefore, to understand the need to examine the scientific evidence of those constructs which are the least controversial.
As part of this setup This article describes the three attributes of scientific knowledge.It must be:
truth and knowledge
All knowledge - the knowledge of a subject.
If knowledge corresponds to its subject, it is true.
However, the truth may be, and knowledge is science.It exists in a pre-scientific, everyday and practical ways, as well as speculation, opinions.
truth and own knowledge - is not the same thing.
speak about the truth, when knowledge is true, the content of his reliably regardless of the knowing subject exists insofar as it objectively.
own knowledge implies the recognition of the diversity of forms of truth.They vary depending on the sufficiency of the bases of such recognition and can be faith, opinion, mundane and practical knowledge, the findings of science.
last not only reported that some content is true, but also justify its truth.As justification can act:
- logical conclusion;
- experimental result;
- theorem and etc.
For this reason, sufficient justification - compulsory and basic requirements for scientific knowledge, as opposed to the non-scientific.
scientific criteria put forward in place of the foundation of the principle of the formula Sciences, deals with the good cause.
Leibniz, who proclaimed this principle showed that the idea, as proof of its truth, it is necessary to justify the other thoughts which, in turn, have proved their truth.
The scientific knowledge requires be universal to mankind, universally valid and obligatory for everyone.
comparison, opinion as non-scientific knowledge individually and neobscheznachimo.
There is a boundary separating scientific knowledge of its truth and knowledge of other modifications.
non-scientific knowledge personified.They certify the truth without good reason, recognizing it as a norm.
truths of science are only recognized as an objective and well-founded.They are universal and impersonal.
Intersubjectivity current scientific knowledge does its reproducibility.This means that all the researchers who have studied the same subject and to put this study in the same conditions, you get the same result.
If every (each, either) knowing subject does not confirm the invariance of his knowledge of all the knowing subject, it does not show the reproducibility and scientific not.
Systematic organizing and artistic, and ordinary and scientific knowledge.
scientific criteria, however, the system characterized by a number of features.
They are based on the rational knowledge that is generated by coherent reasoning.The support of such arguments - the experimental data.
specificity of rational knowledge is the strict inductive-deductive structure.It gives knowledge of a study which confirms that it is true.
scientific and non-scientific knowledge, some clarification
scientific forms of knowledge do not supersede, not abolish other forms do not make them useless.
rational delimitation of sound scientific and non-scientific knowledge justified reason should lead to an understanding of the following important points.
non-scientific knowledge - not fiction and non-fiction.It has its own means and sources of knowledge.His standards and norms are different from the scope of rationality, they produce a very real intellectual community.
non-scientific knowledge is often a precursor to research how to astrological astronomical, alchemical for chemical and carries the seeds of the appearance of scientific truths.These types of knowledge underlying the historical perspective in relation to the sciences called esoteric.They can be termed prescience.
novelty of the study
scientific criteria, indicated in the study on the instantiated data on the content and meaning of changes and additions are called scientific novelty of the study.
scientific novelty is recognized when:
- study develops a problem, do not rise earlier in the science;
- investigated object not previously been studied in science;
- about the object new knowledge;
- above conditions are met in any combination.
interpretation of knowledge as a new occurs when the known data:
- changed radically as a result of the research;
- expanded and supplemented;
- refined (specified).
Signs reliable criteria of scientific
signs cease to be its scientific criteria, if they are considered separately from each other.
So, the truth is born not only within science.
intersubjectivity can be not only science, but also, for example, mass delusion.
systemically considered independently of the other features of scientific, lays the foundation for pseudoscientific arguments.
And only the result of knowledge, which simultaneously realize the above features, in its entirety describes the scientific knowledge.