Some writing systems have a special mark on which they are based, character.In some languages, it can refer to a syllable or sound, in other - words, concepts and morpheme.In the latter case the more common name of "ideogram".
The picture below shows the ancient hieroglyphics.
Translated from the Greek name of "character" means "sacred writings."For the first time the drawings of such a plan were in Egypt before our era.First, the characters are designated by letters, ie were ideograms, later appeared signs that denote words and syllables.This interesting fact is that only the consonants were portrayed characters.The name comes from the Greek language, since they were the first to see them on the rocks obscure letters.Judging by the Egyptian chronicles and some myths, characters were invented by the god Thoth.He formed them in order to preserve in writing some of the knowledge gained Atlanta.
interesting fact is that in Egypt there was a sign written already fully formed.All that makes scientists and the government, but simplifies it.For a long time the characters and their meaning was not clear to the European people.Only in 1822 he was able to fully explore Shapolon Egyptian signs on the Rosetta Stone and to find their decryption.
50-ies of the XIX century, some artists working in the style of expressionism tashizma were much keen on the East.This creates a current, related to Asian calligraphy and sign system.In addition to the ancient Egyptian, they were distributed to Chinese and Japanese characters.
Thanks brush (items that accepted to write the signs), it is possible to decorate the characters and give them a more elegant and formal form.The art of beautiful writing known as calligraphy.It is common in Japan, Malaysia, South and North Korea, China, Vietnam.Residents of these countries is art affectionately referred to as "music for the eyes."This often hosts exhibitions and contests devoted to the beautiful writing.
characters - it is not only writing system of some countries, but also a way to express themselves.
ideographic script ideographic script
currently distributed only in China.Initially, it appeared to simplify the writing, to make it more accurate.But in the process I noticed one drawback: like writing system was not connected.Because of this, it gradually started to slip away everyday lives.Now ideographic script characterizes the Chinese characters.And their importance is much like the old.The only difference lies only in the way of writing.
Chinese writing Chinese writing is to write characters that represent individual syllables and words, as mentioned above.It was formed in the II century BC.Currently, there are more than 50 thousand. Marks, but use only 5 thousand. In ancient times, this alphabet is used not only in China but also in Japan, Korea, Vietnam, exerting a tremendous influence on the formation of their cultures.Chinese characters form the basis of national systems of signs.And yet they are widely used.
origin of Chinese characters
development of Chinese writing is not only affected the entire nation, but also had an enormous impact on the art world.In the XVI century BC formed characters.At the time, people wrote on bones and tortoise shells.Thanks to the excavations of archaeologists and well-preserved remains, the scientists it became easier to make out the ancient letter.It was found more than 3 thousand. Signs, but no comments were given only about 1 thousand. The modern form of this writing acquired only after the complete formation of speech.Chinese characters - is ideography, which means a word or syllable.
Writing a letter is based on the Japanese syllabic and alphabetic characters.About 2 thousand. Characters were borrowed from the Chinese people to use the parts of words that do not change.The rest are written using kana (syllabary).It is divided into two options: Katakana and Hiragana.The first is used for the words that come from other languages, and the second - a purely Japanese.This technique seemed most appropriate.
As a rule, the Japanese characters on the letter read from left to right, in the case of horizontal writing.Sometimes there is a downward direction, as well as right to left.
Origin of Japanese characters
Japanese writing evolved through trial, error and simplification.People were difficult to use in documents only Chinese.Now the formation of the language - a question that causes constant controversy.Some scholars attribute it to the time of the conquest of the Japanese islands, and others - to the Yayoi era.After the introduction of Chinese writing speaking nation has undergone dramatic changes.
In the 90 years of the XIX century, the government has revised all the characters, which combines the compound several types of writing and allowed to consume only 1800 pieces, when in fact they were much more.Now due to the influence of American and other Western cultures practically disappeared official speech takes on a greater sense of slang.Because of this difference between the dialects declined.
emergence of writing system in Japan
When the Japanese government decided to create a language system, the first characters (this is her primary means) were taken from Chinese writing.This event was due to the fact that in ancient times on the Japanese islands often live the Chinese who brought different things, objects and books.It is not known at that time to develop their own characters in Japan.Unfortunately, the data on this subject almost did not survive.
development of Buddhism in the country is strongly reflected in the writing.This religion came through the Korean Embassy, which arrived in the country and has brought a variety of sculptures and texts of the Buddha.The first time after full implementation of the letter to the Chinese people used to life in Japan when writing foreign words.But after a few years there will be discomfort, as the nation's own language was somewhat different and simpler.Problems are also created when writing proper names, which would be used Chinese characters.It has long been worried about the Japanese.The problem is this: in the Chinese language does not exist as words and sounds, which had to be recorded in the document.
idea to split special Japanese words into several parts that make sense, was very bad.In this case, the correct reading had forgotten.If you are not distracted by the sense of the words of the data needed to allocate the reader to understand that he is dealing with the words, the meaning of which can be neglected.This problem has existed for a long time, and it was necessary to solve, without going beyond the boundaries of Chinese writing.
Some scientists over time have begun to invent special signs by which it would be possible to read the text, written in Chinese, Japanese.Calligraphy meant that every character should be placed in a conditioned square, in order not to violate the borders of the entire letter.The Japanese decided to divide it into several parts, each of them in their respective roles.Since that time, the characters (Chinese) and their significance for Japan began to go slowly into oblivion.
Kukai - a man who (according to legend) created Hiragana (Japanese writing first).Due to the development in the field of characters have been created a special system of writing based on phonetics.A little later, by simplifying the forms appeared katakana characters, which is firmly established in use.
Japan already borrowed at the time of writing ordered from China due to their spatial proximity.But developing and changing for themselves an iconic symbol, people began to invent the first Japanese characters.The Japanese could not use Chinese letter in its original form, though, because there is no inflection.This has not stopped the development of language.When a nation met with other systems (based on Chinese characters), it is by taking elements of writing, doing their language more unique.
Character Communication with the Russian language
now very popular tattoo in the form of Japanese and Chinese characters.It is therefore necessary to know the meaning of hieroglyphs in Russian before stuffing them into my body.It is best to use those means "well-being", "happiness", "love", and so on.Before the visit to the tattoo artist is best to check the meaning in several sources.
popular in Russian-speaking countries as a parody of the Asian characters.Russian characters do not exist officially, and only appear on the pages of social networking.They are created thanks to the huge imagination of Internet users.In general, these signs do not carry special meaning and exist only for entertainment.And come up with games that are based on the fact that to guess which word is encrypted in some characters.