According R.-ZH.Shvargenberga, political science today is reminiscent of Penelope, which destroys everything created for the day.Many political scientists are trying to create new theories previously rejected or destroyed everything created before them.
modern political theory that emerged in the twentieth century can be divided into the following:
• Postbihevioralizm.It is based on functionalism T.Parsona.This theory considers the political sphere as a dynamic, sustainable process, and does not take into consideration the conflict.
• postpositivism scientific theory considers only confirmed the practice, and the remaining provisions deemed to have no value and rejects them.
• Neoliberalism calls for strengthening the role of the state, social opportunities to use it to prevent all possible conflicts.Key points: the creation of social protection, the development of the market, competition, state activity in all sectors of the economy.
• Neo-conservatism.Speaking for the freedom of the market, creating competition adheres to the Darwinian theory.According to this doctrine the weak have to splurge, strong - rich.
• Social-democratic split into modernist trends and traditional.
• Humanism, who preaches the theory of non-violence.
In addition to these, there are other theories that have received somewhat less widespread.This is the theory of the apocalypse, the doctrine of totalitarianism and its essence and so forth.
All theories are different approach to the consideration of policy issues, but are similar in that in each of them there is the concept of "political regime", ieespecially the functioning of state power.It is characterized by a degree of freedom means, a measure of participation in the management of individuals, different statuses.
politrezhima concept is one of the components of the term "typology of political systems."
typology - is a specialized method of finding correspondences stable when compared to similar objects or phenomena.It is necessary to organize all that is known about a particular subject.
Typology of political systems:
• Separates main (essential) and secondary (irregular) signs all studied in the research process of political devices.
• Describes the target population of systems creates a complete and orderly theory on their device.
• an important means of scientific prediction of further development politsistem different types.
Typology of political systems can be theoretical, ieconstructed on the basis of a specific researcher invented it as an ideal model.Such a theory is a priori character, and its confirmation, denial comes in the analysis.
empirical typology of political systems as a basis for taking the material gained from the study of specific, well-known properties of the object.Its leading theoretical distinction is clear from the specification of all the properties studied political systems, the creation of the classification, separation of objects in the typical group.
Both typologies should act as a single entity because of the theoretical calculations have to move on to concrete results, certain concepts.
considered strict and complete this typology of political systems that:
• exhaustively covers the systems under study.
• Uses the essential criteria that reveal the typical features of the systems.
• Evenly groups studied system.
• It is a holistic, expresses not only the main characteristics of the system, but also gives an idea of their relationships.
Avowed today considered the typology of political systems Almond.
He compares the system, taking as their starting point politkultury and the roles played by the authorities, the media, parties and so on. N. On the basis of these characteristics it highlights the political systems of the Anglo-American, totalitarian, pre-industrial and the European continental type.Almond characterizes all selected types shows their differences and similarities.