bibliography literally - it bibliology.References in general - is a scientific discipline dealing with the description, systematization and accounting books, and nonfiction books, articles, theses, and so on. N.
What bibliography narrowly
This list is involved in one way orotherwise text references.For example, when writing the essay shows the origin - where the information was taken.Bibliography used in writing theses and other scientific works.The author of the work required to specify which primary sources he relied.
What types bibliographies
There bibliography writers.They include a list of all the texts written by individual authors, and also includes all the biographical and other works written about this writer or his works of other authors.A huge list of, for example, bibliography, AS Pushkin or Tolstoy LN
There is also a bibliography of the second degree.That is a bibliography of all bibliographic texts.It keeps records in chronological order all the bibliographies, divided by topics.
considered a separate science subject bibliography.It caters to certain sectors of activity or theoretical science.
retrospective bibliography (science department) covers all printed works of fiction and journalism for a certain period of time.This may be a year, or one week.
There are also many other types of bibliography.For example, the Russian historical, and organizes taking into account all the texts on the history, released in Russian.It can be attributed to the bibliography.There is a bibliography of books, ie a check-list of literary texts related to one particular book.Such lists can be seen, for example, at the end of educational or scientific publications.
Of all these definitions it is clear that such a bibliography.In a broad sense - it is always a list of references for some topics.This kind of science or bibliology has its own history.If you understand what a bibliography, it becomes clear that this is her story.This is how science evolved and developed in different countries.
Brief History Bibliography in Russia
in Russia since the 18th century began to develop a bibliography.It all started with issues booksellers and recommendation lists of books or journalism in the magazines.In the 18th century Russian literature is very actively developed.Russian writers and journalists catch up and overtake developed in the culture of the West.The notion that such a bibliography, of course, also come from abroad.
first of this kind were the journals "Bibliographical notes" and "Bibliography".They published book reviews, lists various manuscripts in the libraries, directories, recent books, as well as lists of periodicals.
In 1889 came the first bibliographic circle in Moscow.Its initiator was rushed.In 1900 it was transformed into the Russian Bibliographical Society, held in Moscow State University.It organized their magazines.Edited Bodnarskii out "Bibliographical News" and "Bibliology."
In 1907 and 1908 the company published "References collection," to which was attached an alphabetical index to facilitate the search for the right information.The book published objective reviews on books and periodicals published indexes.
bibliography Russia 19-20 centuries
Over the two centuries of Russian bibliography flourished and expanded.Scientists are more closely engaged in this science.They began to rely more on facts rather than opinions.And in this century bibliographies 19-20 th centuries are very helpful bibliography and philology.
In the 20th century there was a synthesis of all the knowledge accumulated in the bibliography.Bibliology and source bibliography began to teach in universities.Bibliographers raised the old archives and recover long-forgotten works of writers as well as those who are repressed and willfully forgotten during the reign of Stalin.It was raised and restored a large layer of Russian literature and journalism.However, the history of the Soviet bibliography still not been studied fully, still open for new sources and archives.Bibliographies to be a lot of hard work.