analytic philosophy is originated in the early 20th century in the Western countries, a new philosophical direction, implying rigor in the use of certain terms, focusing on the process of reasoning, distrust of speculative reasoning.Particularly widespread this type of thinking was in countries such as England, Australia, USA.In Russian literature, analytical trend in philosophy appeared relatively recently, only in the 80s of the twentieth century.
founders of the philosophical trend is considered to be George Moore and Bertrand Russell, the mastermind behind it - the author of the famous "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus" Ludwig Wittgenstein.
The three main features of analytic philosophy are:
- linguistic reductionism, is to bring all the existing problems of the philosophy of language problems;
- methodological bias, which means opposition to all existing analytical method to the 20th century currents of philosophical thought;
- semantic accent, ie skontsentrirovannost attention to the problem of values.
Analytical philosophy of the 20th century - is primarily a philosophy of language.Misunderstandings due to the imperfections of language, ambiguity of expressions and phrases, according to analysts - followers of a new philosophical outlook are the main reason for the emergence and development of the "old" philosophy.According to Wittgenstein, the main task of philosophy is to build such an ideal in the sense of understanding the language, which would help to resolve the centuries of philosophical debate about consciousness and being, ethics and free will.That's why analytic philosophy at the stage of its inception was to the formalization of language and perfected its logical symbols.The solution to this problem involved the followers of Wittgenstein, Rudolf Carnap, Otto Neurath, Moritz Schlick.It should be noted that the idea of bringing the language up to his perfection very quickly exhausted, and philosophers, it was recognized that the existence of a perfect language although permissible, but not always appropriate.For example, a strict mathematical language is unacceptable in everyday life, and even more so when writing non-scientific literature, especially poetry.
thirties of the 20th century considered a watershed period in analytic philosophy of science.It was at this time Ludwig Wittgenstein returned from self-imposed exile (for 6 years he worked as a simple rural teachers in the areas of the Alps) in Cambridge.It quickly formed around the circle of young followers of the theory of analytic thinking.New ideas were embodied in a book called "Philosophical Investigations".This work was the final work of the philosopher's life, he worked on it until his death in 1951.
Its further development of analytic philosophy was in the works of Gilbert Ryle, author of "philosophical argumentation", "category" and many others.The main problem which the author raises in his books, is a simple question: "What makes a philosophical question is philosophical?" The answer lies in the fact that the main purpose of philosophy as a science is "unraveling" categorical mistakes and sort of intelligent nodes.Emerging at the same misunderstandings can be resolved by means of separating different logical categories of concepts and terms.
analytic philosophy and its ideas had a marked influence on the development of philosophy as a whole in many countries.Over time, this area of philosophy has become a widespread cultural trend, the basic positions which are still strong in many English-speaking countries.