The Order of St. Anne.

Order of St. Anne was founded in 1735 by Duke Karl Friedrich, a German by birth.He was in 1725 married the daughter of Emperor Peter the Great, Anna.Initially the order was assumed as a dynastic reward, but later his status has changed significantly.

Duchess Anna did not live long happily married and died in 1728 shortly after the birth of heavy future heir.After the death of his beloved wife of Carl Friedrich decided to immortalize her memory by transmitting an image of the Duchess of using the image on the Order of the next generations of heirs to the throne.During the life of the Order of Duke got 15 subjects to German.

Since that time the rulers of Russia were detained briefly in power, leaving the throne through no fault of their reasons.

heir Elizabeth II

future heir of Russian and Holstein Thrones named Carl-Peter Ulrich.He inherited the throne after Elizabeth II, who had no children of their own, the official decree has decided to build on the throne of his nephew, after which the boy was taken from the Duchy of Holstein in Russia.

State status Order

Since the Order of St. Anne was the dynastic award, he moved to Russia, Peter III, who became Grand Master of the Order of the inherited from his father, he took the highest award of the Duchy of Holstein with him.Once in 1742, he formally ascended to the throne, the order was decided to build the level of state awards in Russia.

new heir to the throne

history of the Russian Empire itself to the present day is filled with tragic events, the most significant of which was the incident that left an indelible mark on modern history.It happened in 1762, when the reign of Paul III, which lasted about 6 months, ended tragically.It happened as a result of a conspiracy to shift from the throne, which he had made his own wife.After his death, the pre-revolutionary Russia got a new heir to the throne - Paul I, who was born in 1754.

reign of Catherine II

Because at the time of the death of the current Emperor Paul I was too young to rule the throne, the whole weight of the board rests on the shoulders of his mother, which directly has been responsible for the death of his father.The history of the Russian Empire at that time received a significant boost to the development under the leadership of Catherine II.Without a doubt, is the most famous empress of the time outside of Russia.

Secret meaning of awards

Although the awards of the Russian Empire differed special elegance, Paul I felt timid feelings exactly in relation to the Order of St.Anne.The reason for this is quite simple.One of Moscow's methods, arranged in 1762, Paul I was presented the first time the beauty of Anna Petrovna, daughter of the local senator PVLopuchin.

She so impressed the Emperor that he insisted on moving her entire family in St. Petersburg.Belle's father received from the emperor the title of prince and the family motto.Since that time, the Hebrew translation of the name Anna - "grace" - has become the pride of the princely family Lopukhins.

From this moment begins the main story of the Order in pre-revolutionary Russia.According to official documents of the imperial family, preserved to this day.Catherine II believed the son of a reverent attitude to the Order funny children's game, but with the time when the future emperor met at a reception with Anna Petrovna, he began to carry more and hidden meaning.Now, the Order of St. Anne's meant for him as much as for the founder of the Carl Friedrich.

Copies of the Order who have received official status

According to the preserved correspondence between the Empress Catherine II and educator Paul I, was a special imperial decree that Paul I had a legal right to award on his behalf this order any nobleman, differing specialvalor.

But the rebellious emperor that was not enough, and he decided to secretly formidable mother, do not consider the Order of St. Anne deserved reward, create many small copies to informally to reward their subjects.Wear them to rely on his sword to, if necessary, it can be easily hidden from prying eyes, and in the case of armed clashes cover by punch.

refusal of the German principality he

In 1773 Catherine II completely waives all rights, privileges and titles, which provides her and her heirs Holstein throne.Since that time, the order of 1 degree will no longer be awarded to the heirs of the imperial dynasty, but as Paul I remained the official Grand Master of the Order, it remained for the official right to award them on their own.

Coronation of Paul I

Coronation of Paul I fell down on November 12, 1797.On this day, he formally accedes to the throne, and the pre-revolutionary Russia receives in its history the new emperor, one of the first decrees of which is the construction of the Order of St.Anna to the rank of state awards, and its division into 3 major degree.Now the copy of the order, which were made in the young emperor, obtained legal status and treated 3 degrees.

Initially it was assumed that the rulers of Russia will be awarded according to the Order of the only officers.Appearance Order directly dependent on the extent to which it relates.Its dimensions, depending on the degree ranged from 3.5 cm to 5.2 cm.

1. Order of St. Anne 1 degree - encrusted with diamonds.Wearing this kind of Order relied on the broad red ribbon with yellow stripes, which runs along the edges.They awarded it simultaneously with a silver star.And the star had to flip over his right shoulder, and the Order through the left.On the golden background was located eight-pointed star in the center of which was placed a red cross.In his circle Latin alphabet was derived the motto of the Order Amantibus Justitiam Pietatem Fidem, consequently, of the transfer can be concluded that they rewarded the faithful and pious people.

Red Cross coloration achieved by coating enamel surrounded by a thin gold border.At the center of the cross was located on the image of the Duchess Anna white wall socket in full growth.It also is surrounded by a gold border.On the reverse side is the monogram of the Order was the Duchess, made using enamel blue.Above the facial image of two angels hovering Anna wielding the imperial crown.

In 1829, the diamond inserts were only award given to foreign citizens and since 1874 was reversed image of the imperial crown on the orders of the first degree.

2. Order of St. Anne 2 degrees - inlaid rock cut glass.Wear it was necessary in the neck, hooking to the narrow ribbon.Basically it awarded to persons who took the Christian faith, and merchants.However, this image of Anne Order was replaced by the two-headed eagle.On the reverse of the order made by the azure color, shows an abbreviation of the motto of the Order of AIPF, the purpose of which was awarded to remind that the countess was the daughter of Peter I. The Silver Star is not relied upon.

3. Order of St. Anna 3 degrees - the most common option.Wear relied on his sword.It is a small circle, which was located inside the enamel cross in the ring of the same material, with both of the details have been made in a bright red color.

13 years after the official recognition as a state award wearing rules were changed.Now I had to pin her to the Bantu, the color of which was to immediately indicate awarded belongs to the military or civilians.According to the decree of the 1847 Order of 3 degrees, it was decided to reward officials who have served at least 12 years of one of not less than 13 classes.Since that time the Order actually come to rely as a reward for long service.

4. Order of St. Anne's 4 degrees - was established by the son of Paul I - Emperor Alexander I. This degree is awarded only to military officers.Order was supposed to wear on the weapon that is used in the form of troops, which is awarded the face.

Among the subjects of the Russian Emperor Alexander I, the Order of the 4th degree is called "Cranberry".The thing is that its size does not exceed 2.5 cm and was exactly the same color as this berry.If the officer, who had previously been awarded the Order of 4 degrees awarded higher reward was supposed to wear them at the same time.

name of the Order of 4 degrees was changed exactly one year after it has undergone a change in the right to wear the Order of 3 degrees.Now it was supposed to add a mandatory prefix "For Bravery".

history of rewarding

Beginning in 1857 the emperor issued a decree in which military officers have been awarded not only to the Order, where the image of the Duchess Anna was replaced by two the crossed swords and bow bright red color, so that the people's insight oncejust received confirmation, because now anyone who saw a similar reward for the eyes called "Knight of the Order of The Cranberries."

Award "Cranberry" Order was made until the Revolution of 1917, when all the rewards of the tsarist empire was officially abolished by the new government.

Procedure jeweled orders 1 and 2 degree was significantly modified, although it did not affect innovation and awardees of foreign nationals.

Modernization Order

At the end of the XIX century and changed the procedure for awarding the Order of 3 degrees.Already since 1847 to have the oversight of the award, it was required to serve in the army or in the official post at least 8 years.In addition, more and changed the look of the order of 3 degrees.From 1855 to it have been added to the crossed swords 2.

Until the middle of the XIX century every man that was set for the award, received in addition of certain benefits of the Order.Thus, in addition to any extent and the order it was supposed knighthood, but because of the high prevalence of awardees this rule changed, leaving receive the title of tribal nobility only for people awarded the Order of 1 degree.The rest received sole title of nobility, are not transferred to the heirs.

In case award awarded merchants or persons who have not converted to Christianity, they become honorary citizens of the Russian Empire, not receiving the noble title.

most famous personalities awarded the Order:

  • Lieutenant General Vasily Suvorov - awarded Elizabeth.
  • Generalissimo Alexander Suvorov - Holstein received the Order of St. Anne.
  • Kutuzov received the Order of St.Anne as his first award in 1789.

Lifetime Achievement Award

Insignia ST.Anna or Anna's Medal, established in 1796 by Paul 1 and was a gold-plated medal, the center of which was a red cross.It rewards the military, whose length of service exceeds 20 years.

In addition to the rewards and relied more monetary compensation, the amount of which depended on the merits and the status will be awarded, and could reach $ 100.

Order 3 or 4 without the bow and the money awarded to encourage non-commissioned officers, seniority which was more than 10 years.

Russian Empire Awards

  • Order of St. Andrew - Peter I founded in 1698.Rewarded them for their bravery and loyalty to the homeland and the Emperor.According to legend, Peter the Great, who returned from a trip to England, wanted to have in Russia such as the Order of what he saw.
  • Order of Liberation - established the Peter the Great in 1713.During the life of Peter I received this award from the hands of the Emperor only his wife Ekaterina Alexeevna.A memorable event took place November 24, 1714.

Later they were awarded the wives of prominent Russian figures for the useful social activities.Originally conceived as a reward proper behavior of the imperial wife during an unsuccessful campaign of Prussia in 1711.

According to legend, after the Russian troops were surrounded by the Turks, Catherine donated their jewelry to bribe the Turkish commander, so troops managed to make peace and come back home.Eyewitnesses of this event did not confirm the transfer of valuables as a bribe, but decent behavior pregnant empress was noted by all the military.Order was 2 degrees, the difference between the various finished gems.The first degree was encrusted with diamonds, and the second - a mountain cut glass.

  • Order of Alexander Nevsky - Catherine I instituted in 1725.Intended to reward secondary public officials.The first award was made according to the order on the day of the wedding of Peter I to Catherine I. The award was received 18 people.
  • Military Order of Saint George - instituted by Catherine II in 1769.He awarded to soldiers who have shown particular courage in the fighting.I had four degrees difference.
  • Order of Prince Vladimir - instituted by Catherine II in 1782.Awarded to employees and officers of the middle ranks.The number of awardees is not restricted.Manufactured in four different degrees.
  • Order of St.Anne and Maltese Cross - instituted by Paul I and his son, Alexander I, the Order of St UPDATE.Anna 4 degrees in 1797.Awarded to military and civilians alike distinguished themselves before the emperor.There was Order of the Maltese Cross, when seized Egypt and Malta, Napoleon offered directly to Emperor Paul I to accept the dignity of the Grand Master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.
  • Order of the White Eagle, the Order of St. Stanislaus and the Order of Virtuti Militari - founded by Nicholas I in 1831.These orders were a part of Russian orders after the accession of Poland to Russia.Handing Polish soldiers for bravery in combat.And awarding these orders can be made only within five years after the end of hostilities.
  • Order of Princess Olga - instituted by Nicholas II in 1913.Awarded to a woman for the bearing of the public service.According to award the Order of the Emperor could either, or the person in whose hands was a special imperial diploma.

At the end of this article I would like to stress once again the invaluable contribution of the ruling dynasty in pre-revolutionary Russia the creation of the modern state, the entire history of the formation is up to the revolution of 1917 can be traced on the orders received by the most outstanding personalities of the time.