Popular Russian grammar: spelling of difficult words

Complicated called words, which are based on more than one root.These words can refer to different parts of speech, they are most often nouns and adjectives.The article deals with the general rules of spelling difficult words.

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Spelling grammar data is subject to the following rules:

  • written together nouns and adjectives beginning with auto, aircraft, aerial,null, motorcycle, bicycle, TV, radio, photographic, cinematographic, stereo-, multi, phonons, electrons, micro, mono, quasi-, macro, solar, thermal, agro-, bio-, zoo, pseudo, graph-, meteorological.
  • the words are written together, comprising two or more of these elements: aviameteostantsiya, fotokinohronika, photomicrography.Nonetheless, skipping the second part of the word you want to use the so-called trailing hyphens: film, photo and TV cameras.
  • written together nouns and adjectives derived from them, if two or more roots they combine the vowels a and e. For example, pandemonium, mud baths, reinforced concrete, miner, rybonasosnymi.

spelling difficult words: remember exceptions

hyphenated need to write the compass: north-east, south-west;the name of the complex units: bed-day ton-kilometer.If the second part of the word is represented by a proper name, the correct spelling is hyphenated.For example, the false Dmitri, quasi-Dali.

When the hyphen is not needed

  • be fused spelling difficult words, in the first part of which are numerals: hexagon, quatrain trehkopeechny, dvadtsatipyatikilometrovy, trehsotvosmidesyatimillimetrovy.
  • numeral "six" when entering a compound word is in the form sesquilinear.For example, polutoraprotsentny, eighteen months.
  • Numerals "two", "three" in the form of complex structures in addition to two-, three-, and may have a form of two-, three-, friction: a two-digit, three-story, shotgun, shamrock, Triangle.In a number of words, along with the shape of a two permissible double writing.For example, bivalent and divalent dvusmenny and two-shift, double-voiced and dvuhgolosyj.

spelling difficult words with some numerals may not be in the form of the genitive.In particular, the numerals "billion", "million", "thousand", "one" of the compound word included in the nominative case and communicate with other root vowel o or e. For example, millionnozvezdny, thousand-single-member (root striping).Note: the word "half" in complex structures written separately: five and a half kilometer long road, ten and a half million people.

Spelling compound words beginning with full, firm, except forms, where the second part begins with a vowel, with the letter "L" or capitalized: a half-bottle, half-lives, half point, half a liter, half of Paris, half-Italian.However, if the total is separated from the definition of the noun, the compound word written separately: half tablespoon of gender Free France.
There are many words beginning with the semi.All of them are written together: a half turn, a peninsula, reclining, half-closed, half-jokingly.

Fusion slozhnosokraschennye written words beginning with zam-, zav-, pom.For example, the deputy minister, heads of department, assistant director.However, if such parts are separated by adjectives, spelling difficult words made conjoint: zavrayonnoy newspaper zamministersky portfolio.

spelling difficult words: usually use a hyphen

  • These words are written with a hyphen if they are formed without connecting vowel, and have the same meaning.For example, pals, sale, sadness, melancholy.There is another nuance of meaning: words like factory machine, reading-room, the house-museum, the Prime Minister, the press attache, boy, rake, a drunkard, a shoemaker.
  • hyphenated have to write a two-syllable geographical names.For example, Gus Crystal, Alma-Ata, Rostov-on-Don, Pas-de-Calais, La Rochelle.

RememberFused accepted spelling of adjectives when one of the parts separately is not used.For example, omnivorous, fleeting, rattle.But if the adjectives used clarify shades of meaning, they are written with a hyphen: salty-sour, pale pink.

We hope our article has helped you to understand this difficult and quite controversial section of the grammar of the Russian language as the spelling of difficult words.