unique Biosphere Reserve "black earth" - the only Russian reserve, where he studied natural landscapes characteristic of the area of deserts, semi-deserts and steppes.In addition, he is trying to save the Kalmyk saiga, increasing their numbers.Reserves, established in 1990, was awarded the UNESCO 03.12.93 status of Biosphere Reserve.
Reserve sprawled on the southern European lands of Russia.However, where there is a reserve "Black Earth", it is the Republic of Kalmykia.National Park consists of two parts, the climatic conditions which are very different.
Steppe area covers the north-west of the Caspian depression.It stretches along the lower reaches of the Volga and Kuma, lands occupied Yashkul and Chernozemelsky District.Ornithological area extends around the lake Manych-Gudilo.It is located in the Kuma-Manych Depression, rather, in its center.Her possessions stretched on Yashaltinskomu and Priyutnensky District.
Nature Park is adjacent to the settlements Komsomol, Hultuha, village Priyutnoe.Biosphere Reserve "black earth" - a place where docked two major global ecosystem.It shared sovereignty moderate area with grasslands and continental belt of deserts and semi dominated by icy winter.
stretches of undulating low-lying plain, formed by vast arrays of ridge-hilly sands national park "Black Earth".The reserve is located on the ground covered deposits were formed during the onset of the Caspian Sea to the land.Therefore, it is highly saline sandy land.
The junction Azov and the Caspian depression - the old strait stretching for 500 kilometers - was transformed into the Manych depression.About once existed Strait now resembles a lake Manych-Gudilo, located in the cavity.
Initially, the lake water was too saline.Drought in the reservoir is almost completely dried up.From it remained a chain of tiny Ozerets saltwater related scanty or completely disparate channels.Artificial flooding reduced the salinity of the lake, but it helps to keep the width in the range from 1.5 to 10 kilometers, and a depth in the center of lowering marginal relief - up to 5-8 meters.
sharply continental climate prevails in the reserve "Black Earth".The reserve is dominated by dry hot summers and severe winters snowless.Hence the name of the park: the land is not covered with snow - black.Summer temperatures range from 24 to 42 0C, winter kept at -6 to -35 0C.
typical steppe and semi-desert animals inhabit the biosphere park "Black Earth".Reserve sheltered variety of reptiles.For background reptile carried yaschurok fast and colorful, toad eared and vertihvostok.Not far behind them and the sand boa glass-lizard.Bask in the sun creeps yascherichnye and steppe viper snake.
Ideal for hare and eared hedgehogs, ground squirrels and gerbils reserve "Black Earth".Animals belonging to the predators identified their hunting territory.In the vastness of the park ply foxes and wolves, Blond Hori and dressings.Occasionally across southern birch mouse, emuranchiki and northern three-toed jerboa.Because of cloven-hoofed common saiga.Guarded saiga population, virtually disappeared in the 1980s, and now has grown to 150 thousand.
on twelve islands of Lake Manych-Gudilo breeds Community waterbirds.Against the background of the usual species of birds distinguished colony of rare birds lake.Common gulls, cormorants and spoonbills are few neighbors, pink and curly pelicans.Flocks of waterfowl migrating to wintering protracted, arrange on Lake break.During migrations occur red-breasted goose, white-fronted geese and gray.
the park came together two zones - desert and dry steppe.The color palette of the desert and steppe varies depending on the season.In the spring a riot of color ephemera in the national park "Black Earth".Reserve zapolonyayut colorful blossoms of irises and tulips alternating green grasses and sagebrush growing up with leaves gray-green tones.
With the arrival of summer days to gain traction among the purple-brown bush fire and bulbous bluegrass shine silvery whitish islands feathery feather.At the end of the summer is dominated by brown and yellow colors that blaze alfalfa, crested, wheatgrasses and wormwood.Autumn grayish-brown background formed by black wormwood and withering grasses, visible blotches of dark green halophytic communities, gradually turning into blood-red spots.