Mastering airspace humanity began using balloons, ie of aircraft with an average density less than that of air.However, discoveries in the field of aerodynamics created conditions for the realization of other fundamental tools to move in the atmosphere and gave rise to the aircraft.
Each airplane flying in the sky, there are four forces: gravity, friction, engine thrust, and another, holding it in the air.However, such an aircraft, as a glider, do without the motor, and is used to move the energy of atmospheric currents.So what keeps a heavy airplane from falling under the influence of gravity and compensates for it?Vector upward - is the lift that occurs when washing the air wing surfaces.To explain its nature is simple.If you carefully examine the wing of the aircraft, it becomes clear that it is convex.During the movement of the air molecules are smaller distance from the bottom than the top.This leads to the fact that the pressure under the plane becomes greater than above it.Air above the wing, as it were "stretched", becoming more rarefied than a flat bottom surface.It is this pressure difference is the lift force, which pushes the aircraft upward against the force of gravity.
first aircraft manufacturers are faced with the need to resolve a number of technical problems that require new solutions at the time.It was clear that the lift of the wing depends on the geometry of its velocity profile.In this plane in the air is moving unevenly.In addition, for the take-off and take-off required more energy than to fly at a constant altitude.The upper layers of the atmosphere over discharged, which also affects the properties of the bearing structure.Reducing and landing require special modes of piloting.The found solution to the problem lay in the possibility of changing the characteristics of the profile of the wing through its mechanization.The design included moving elements called flaps.
In the event of upward lifting force is reduced, and when they lowered it increases.Modern aircraft have a high degree of mechanization of the wing - in their design uses many components and assemblies to effectively manage aviation equipment at different speeds and under different conditions.The front end is equipped with slats at the bottom, as a rule, there are brake pads, but the principle remains the same as that used in the first airplanes: the lift of the wing of the aircraft depends on the difference in the rate of the air flow near the upper and lower surfaces.
mechanized wing flaps for takeoff as possible omitted, reducing the length of the takeoff run.When planting their position is the same, then it is possible to carry out a minimum speed.Performing horizontal maneuvers, the pilot using the control knob or the wheel changes position the flap so that the lift suited his intentions to raise the plane up or down.When flying at a predetermined height at a constant rate of mechanization of the wing elements are in neutral, ie the middle position.