After the February Revolution and the overthrow of the king's monarchical Russia has moved to the status of "republic".Provisional Government (the so-called themselves the new government) to shoulder the whole burden of the Board itself.By that time, a host of parties, have followers and putting forward its program for the further restructuring of the state apparatus.In order to conduct a decent election, the Provisional Government organizes the Constituent Assembly.In 1917, among other things, it became famous huge turmoil around the preparations for the event.And it was this year held its first vote.Most distinguished party:
- the Bolsheviks;
- the Mensheviks;
elections to the Constituent Assembly in 1917 began with the preparation.
Preparations for the elections
in preparing representatives of all existing at the time the parties and all unions.The printing press to produce large print runs of literature, leaflets, posters and other propaganda.On the streets of the population surveyed.Also held various presentations to familiarize the people with the policy of this or that party.
event promises to be democratic.What has not been until now in the Russian Empire.Voter could become a citizen of 20 years or a person serving in the army at the age of 18 years.Also can participate in the election of women.What it was a novelty not in Russia, but also in most countries.The exceptions were Denmark, New Zealand, Norway, and some states in America, where women established themselves equal rights with men.
Constituent Assembly Elections in 1917 were held in several constituencies, which the country was divided.Parliamentary quota allocated at the rate of one to two hundred thousand people.The exception was perhaps that Siberia.The local calculation was carried out for reasons of one-on-one hundred seventy-nine thousand people.
principle of proportionality, which is characteristic for the selection of the Constituent Assembly of 1917, has been borrowed from the Belgians.And the main feature of this system, it was thought that, apart from the majority, also allowed minority.To do this in smaller districts were organized around twelve districts with their characteristic majoritarian election system.
Constituent Assembly Elections in 1917 were held in November.The event lasted no more than three days.
After the elections to the Constituent Assembly in 1917 the results showed that the SRs were in the lead with about 50% of the vote.In second place were the Bolsheviks.Their percentage of votes did not exceed 25. In the lower areas were Mensheviks and the Cadets.
Total Votes approximately 44.5 million people.
liquidation of the Cadets
Bolsheviks under public pressure not prevented the holding of elections to the Constituent Assembly in 1917, but suffered a defeat there.In order to somehow reduce the number of their competitors, they have prepared a decree, subsequently endorsed by the CPC and tells that the Cadet Party - a party of enemies of the people.After that, the Cadets were deprived of their mandates.
Next, they were subjected to arrests and executions.To help them come like the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, but Sovnarcom flatly forbade them to do so, referring to that same decree.He was later killed Kokoshkin - the leader of the Cadet Party.Constituent Assembly (1917) passed without the presence of the Cadets.Kokoshkin In addition, the same night was shot and Shingarev deputy - leader of the Constitutional Democratic Party.
Dispersal of the Constituent Assembly, or "The guard is tired»
After a series of reprisals against the leaders of the other parties, the Bolsheviks made a loud statement in a newspaper.The newspaper "Pravda" at the time narrated in detail about the activities of deputies, members of the Constituent Assembly (1917).In Russia, the newspaper enjoyed the greatest popularity.What a surprise it was when it published a statement Bolshevik leaders, threatening to consolidate his power by revolutionary action, if any, will not be recognized at the meeting.
Nevertheless meeting was held.Declaration of Lenin "Workers" and has not received the recognition that has led to the fact that in the third hour of the night, the Bolsheviks left the Tauride Palace, where the meeting took place.An hour after they retired and the Left Socialist Revolutionaries.The other party to the chairman of Chernov, selected by a majority vote, took documents relating to:
- the law of the land as an public property;
- negotiations with the warring powers;
- the declaration of Russia as a democratic republic.
However, none of these documents has not been adopted by the Bolsheviks.Moreover, the next day none of the deputies, they decided was not admitted to the Tauride Palace.Of course the congregation was dispersed anarchist sailor Zheleznyakov with the words "Ask to stop the meeting, the guard is tired and wants to sleep."This phrase has become history.
No elections for deputies, nor the Constituent Assembly in 1917 came to nothing lead.Everything was already decided by the Bolsheviks.The very same meeting was approved by them in demonstration purposes.
Further actions meeting participants unleashed a revolutionary situation in the country.
Despite the fact that right-wing parties of the Constituent Assembly were banned, the purpose of the White movement was a new convening and holding of the Constituent Assembly, but not the one that stopped a sailor Zhelezniak.Since the first (it is also the last), the Constituent Assembly is entirely controlled by the Bolsheviks.