To help the student: definition, types and examples of antonyms

Antonyms - words that are different in sound and have the opposite values: false - true evil - the good, silent - speak.Examples antonyms show that they belong to the same part of speech.

Antonimija presented in Russian is much narrower than synonyms.This is due to the fact that in antonymous relations are entering only the words that are related on quality (good - bad, home - a strange, clever - stupid, thick - a rare, high - low), time (day - night, early - late), quantitative(single - multiple, many - few), spatial (unobscured - close, large - small, wide - narrow, high - low) grounds.

There antonymous pairs denoting names of states, actions.Examples of this kind of antonyms: rejoice - to grieve, to cry - laugh.

Types and examples of antonyms in Russian

Opposites structure divided into raznokorennye (morning - evening) and the same root (go - go).The opposite of the values ​​from one root antonyms called prefixes.However, be aware that the addition to the dialects and qualitative adjective prefixes

without -, not - in most cases, gives them value weakened opposites (high - low), so that the contrast of their values ​​is "muted" (low - it does not mean"low").On this basis, the antonym to include prefixes, not all education, but only those that are extreme points of lexical paradigm: strong - weak, harmful - friendly, good - bad.

Opposites, as well as synonyms, are in close connection with the polysemy: empty - serious (talk);empty - full (cup);empty - expressive (opinion);empty - informative (story).Examples antonyms show that the different meanings of the word "empty" come in different antonymous pairs.Unambiguous words as well as words with specific meanings (pentameter, pencil, desk, notebook, etc..) Can not be antonyms.There

among antonyms and enantiosemy phenomenon - the development of mutually exclusive, opposite the values ​​of some ambiguous words: to bear (in the room, bring) - Nesta (out of the room, carrying out);thrown (a phrase just expressed) - abandoned (abandoned, forgotten).The value in this case is specified in the context.Often the cause of enantiosemy ambiguity of certain expressions.Examples of such opposites: he listened to the report;Director watched these lines.

antonyms Context: definition and examples

Contextual antonyms - words, opposed in a particular context: the moonlight - sunlight;not a mother, and a daughter;one day - the whole of life;Wolves - sheep.The polarity of the values ​​of such words in the language is not fixed, and their opposition is an individual author's decision.Writer in such cases reveals the opposite qualities of different concepts and contrasts them in the speech.However, these pairs of words are not antonyms.