the spring of 1936 the courtyard of the Moscow Kremlin drove two cars, their appearance reminiscent of the American "Buick" and "Packard" in one bottle.It was a preproduction sample of the first Soviet representative car ZIS-101.Due to the fact that domestic designers did not have experience in the design of machines of this class, the similarity with overseas progenitors were not only external: the layout, as well as many components and assemblies have been copied from the "Buick".With this model, production started at the Moscow Automobile Plant named after Stalin, in addition to trucks, also executive cars.Incidentally, although the first Soviet limousine and did not arrive in the free sale to the public (pre-60s cars to private owners is not implemented), it could get a reward or win the lottery.
From Stalin to Brezhnev
Since the beginning of the Great Patriotic War car production at ZiSe was discontinued and was resumed only in the victorious 1945 when I started producing models ZIS-110.After Stalin's death, and the coming to power of Khrushchev in 1956, the plant was named after Likhachev, and, accordingly, changed the name of the machine on the ZIL-110.In 1958, a new model started to be issued - ZIL-111.This was based on the tradition when each new General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee received a limousine.The reign of Leonid Brezhnev dragged on for 18 years, and he got just three models: ZIL-114, 117 and 115, the latter soon changed its index, in accordance with the new guests on the ZIL-4104.
After the death of Leonid Brezhnev and the election for the presidency in November 1982, Yuri Andropov, the leadership of the Moscow Automobile decided not to break the tradition, despite the fact that in less thanfour years old, she became released a new model - ZIL-4104.Therefore, it was decided to modernize already produced vehicles.The machine is called ZIL-41045.
Design and construction
Structurally ZIL-41045 repeating his predecessor.The base chassis was welded frame with box-section spars.The steering mechanism had power.Front suspension - independent torsion bar to wishbone, rear - dependent on asymmetrical longitudinal semi-elliptic leaf springs.The transverse stability of the vehicle ensured stabilizers.Brakes - dual circuit, vacuum and two gidrovakuumnymi amplifiers.
Engine eight V-shaped, with the angle of 90 °.The fuel used gasoline A-95.The ignition system has a backup emergency chain, increasing its reliability, the car also had two powerful battery.Wheel drive transmission consisted of a three-stage automatic transmission with torque converter.The wheels were equipped with sixteen-wheels and special tires that are allowed to move after hitting the wheel.Body - a classic, four-door, like "limousine", with a minimum number of different decorative elements.Shop packaged with built-in audio and climate system.Seats front row separated from the passenger compartment by a partition, which fell half a glass top.The color, which stained ZIL-41045 - black.
Since ZIL-41045 was designed for trips of senior Soviet officials, particular attention was paid to the decoration of the car.Flooring was wool carpet special colors "bug" that made invisible dust and dirt.Seat and door was made of Dutch tobacco-colored mohair, such as at the ZIL-41045, a photo of which is presented in the article.
However, at the request of the customer, there were other options, for example, a car, serving the Soviet Defense Minister Ustinov's DF, had interior light beige.Front seats - leather, of Argentine buffalo.Some vehicles were equipped phone governmental communication and secret special equipment.The first ZIL-41045 was manufactured in 1983 and entered on the balance sheet Special Purpose Garage, a trip that serviced the Secretary General of the CPSU Central Committee.However, Yuri Andropov used the new car for long.In February 1984, this post was taken by Konstantin Chernenko, and in March 1985 - Mikhail Gorbachev.Due to the short innings Konstantin Ustinovich "their" limousine he had not received, and the next model - ZIL-41047 - appeared only in 1985.Thus, Mikhail Gorbachev, who became the last secretary general of a great country, was able to ride on the latest model of representation cars Automobile ZIL Moscow.