about the crime situation, all we hear on the news, read the newspapers, but sometimes it until the end and did not realize what it is.Let's understand this concept, consider the existing types, as well as ways in which to protect themselves in contact with her.
What is the crime situation?
It is understood as the event or condition that caused the person to make a determination of a criminal act.In other words, it is a set of circumstances in which a person is before a crime is committed.These circumstances affect his mind, will, feelings, and in accordance with the moral character of the person, cause his desire and determination to commit a criminal (intentional or negligent) act.Thus, the criminal situation occupies a very significant position in the complex reasons for the commission of a particular crime.But at the same time, it is as if in an intermediate position between the individual offender, his environment and a criminal act.
classification of the crime situation by source
Depending on the source of origin, shared by three types of criminal situation:
- those that intentionally creates a criminal himself, for example, deliberately delaying the registration of any documents, certificates (bureaucracy) toextortion and bribe-taking;
- crime dangerous situation created by it, but unintentionally (for example, the use of alcohol, which resulted in the creation of an emergency on the road);
- situation resulting from immoral and infringing conduct of others, such as the excess of defensive measures when a man was forced to defend his interests or his relatives;
- situation created by the victims of crime, they include provocative behavior, appearance (for more information on these issues has been victimology or the science "of the victims");
- criminogenic situation occurring as a result of any natural phenomena, so that various types of disasters (flood, earthquake, etc.) create a space for looters;
- situation occurred by coincidence.
possible existence and mixed situations: for example, a driver in a state of strong alcohol or drugs has an accident on the problem, not repaired section of the road in bad weather conditions (rain, storm, fog, etc.).In addition to natural, and there is a significant human element.
concept of crime is inseparably linked with its victims.Without a thorough study of the personality of the victim prevention can not go beyond the traditional approaches.It is necessary to investigate in detail the individual victims and the circumstances by virtue of which they have become established.Very often, the criminal situation is created by the actions of the victim is.Victimology has set itself certain tasks:
- study of the personality of the victim and her behavior;
- legal education of citizens: even if there is no basic knowledge of the majority of the victims are not fully or even how to apply them in practice;
- epistemological: Unfortunately, it is recognized that the development of the industry is only at the initial stage, while in the United States and some European countries it is given sufficient attention and deeper study.
is important Victimological and crime prevention.In fact, it is a special social institutions, which is aimed at identifying and addressing the factors and circumstances that contributed to the victim behavior.Work is conducted on three levels: general social, special and individual.Victimological prevention - it is a broad concept.Crime must be countered by all possible preventive measures.
Long criminogenic situation
Beneath them is commonly understood such circumstances (situation) that occur well before the time of the crime.They last for a certain time period, affecting the person psychologically, often overwhelming and depressing.We can say that they seem to "prepare" a person to commit a crime.Examples of the crime situation of this nature are fairly common: long family conflicts, stay in an unfavorable social environment (particularly strong impact on children and adolescents), etc.
Short criminological situation
their second title - single.They occur quickly and on time often seem to merge with the crime, such as a quarrel in a restaurant, a nightclub, even elementary in line at the store.For a little period of time is the development of a conflict that ends in different ways: fight, assault, abuse, etc.
Sometimes it happens, that happens a combination of these two species, such as the long-term marital conflict between husband and wife when the husband regularly consume alcohol or drugs, she was beaten, insulted and humiliated human dignity.But the crime is committed as a result, as they say, "the last drop" of a particular action, short-term and at a certain point.
General criminogenic situation
This classification is based on the prevalence, according to her, There are two types of criminogenic situations.
General, that is spreading on a relatively large area, for example, the lack of any products or services in a particular region or in the country gives rise to smuggling crime in Russia.
local criminogenic situation
They occur at a specific, limited area, such as housing or conflict on the basis of professional relationships in a team in a particular organization, the quarrel, the loss of property, etc.
- problem - they lie in the fact that the individual is forced to find a way and means possible way out of the situation or the circumstances of life, in order to achieve this goal, for example, when you need to send money debt (endangered the life of its ownor close), and it drives people to commit theft.
- Conflict - conflicts of interest arise when the perpetrator and other persons or public bodies and public: for example, juvenile delinquency, which is often the result of their conflict with parents, teachers, other senior-age persons.
- Extreme, that is unusual, exceptional situation for the person that have a profound effect on him: for example, crimes committed in the heat of passion, that is a strong psychological shock.
Classification by nature of the impact
Depending on what action has on people, are the following criminogenic situation:
- provoking (tempting), they have energizing effects and encourage the person to commit a crime, for example, unattended bagor car with the key in the ignition, the behavior of the victim;
- discharged - they cause relaxation of psychological stress, which was caused by any other circumstances;
Signs crime situation
Any crime situation in its essence is an objective, includes features of the subject and the object of attacks, temporal and geographical, climatic and other conditions.As its elements can serve circumstances that favor the commission of a crime, such as insufficient protection of property damaged sections of the road, preventing normal movement, provocative behavior of the victim (active or involuntary), etc.
At the same time, the criminal situation is and subjective, that is perceived as such a specific individual.This perception of a character depends on its moral and psychological qualities that lead to negative or positive behavior in the current environment.However, it should be borne in mind that even the most unfavorable situation does not always lead to the commission of a crime.Crucial belongs to the human factor (the system of beliefs, inclinations, aspirations).
Situations criminogenic nature should be identified promptly and dealt with by specific measures - an important point in the prevention of crimes.
often occurs association terms "crime situation" and "the situation."Under the first term from the legal point of view, should imply a certain set of factors that contribute to the sustainable conservation of the level of crime or the growth of (individual genera or species) in a specific territory (republic, city or separate area).And that distinguishes it from the concept of the criminal situation.If the first persist or worsen already existing negative situation into a crime, then the second term describes the circumstances that can cause an act punishable by the criminal law, but not always.
in Russia, especially in some regions, the crime situation is still difficult.
Value concepts of the crime and the criminal situation
This issue is narrowly viewed in the legal literature.But most of all, the criminal situation is understood as a possible variant of the crime.But not all, and the only one where a subject with the purpose of criminal or antisocial plant begins to operate.Some scientists say that the knowledge of the situation (criminal) commission of a crime carried out by forensic characteristics as an ideal representation of the criminal acts of a certain category (such as juvenile delinquency) and their consequences.Of great interest is the classification, since it will allow to create private investigation techniques based on different grounds.
stages of the criminal situation
total there are three.Let us examine each in more detail.
1. Predkriminalnaya situation - a special system of circumstances and conditions, time and place, the nature of relations between the offender and his victim, causing the method of committing the crime.Most often they are generated during the implementation of the preparatory action: thorough preparation and elaboration of the plan, the choice of instruments, space.Such actions will constitute the essence predkriminogennoy situation only if they are not described in the disposition of the corresponding article.
2. Actually criminal situation.It is a developed system of conditions and circumstances through which implemented the unlawful purpose.It appears directly in the moment when the action begins offender.
3. of post-situation.It includes events occurring after the commission of a criminal act.This includes concealing or destroying tracks and other methods of avoiding criminal liability.
crime situation and personal security
from falling into unfavorable conditions, a situation no one is immune.The most important thing - is to keep calm and sobriety of mind.Basic safety rules when released into the criminogenic situation (in the street, in public places, etc.) can be expressed in three words: to anticipate, avoid and act.
main condition for security - is to avoid direct contact with the offender.Therefore it is important to remember some of the highlights and nuances.Crime situation occur most often at night, in sparsely populated areas, entrances, elevators.So try not to be on the street at night alone.Remain calm and confident, no signs of the victim (depression, fatigue, fatigue, physical handicaps) and try not to attract the attention of big bags and expensive jewelry.When there is a choice of the route, choose the one that is safer, but not shorter.
Crime in Russia is quite high, due to it in the first place the standard of living and economic performance.As the stable expression forewarned - is forearmed.If the area in which you live or often go to work, has a criminal fame, it does not neglect the rules of personal safety.